GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Panicum maximum

HABIT Perennial, or annual (rarely); caespitose. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; robust, or of moderate stature, or slender; (25–)75–200(–450) cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes distally glabrous, or hispid, or pilose. Culm-nodes glabrous, or bearded. Leaf-sheaths wider than blade at the collar, or as wide as blade at the collar. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; (6–)12–40(–100) cm long; (4–)12–35 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle.

Panicle open; oblong, or pyramidal; 12–45(–60) cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; whorled at lower nodes.

Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels straight, or flexuous; glabrous, or bearing a few hairs; hairy at tip.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse, or acute; (2.5–)3–4.5(–5) mm long; falling entire.

GLUMES Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.33–0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.

FLORETS Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; without grooves; glabrous, or pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5–5 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate. Palea surface rugose.

DISTRIBUTION Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.

NOTES Paniceae. FTEA.

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.