GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
W.D. Clayton, M.S. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson
© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
The interactive program is accessed through an icon;
QUIT. It uses binary data
files, YCHARS and YITEMS, prepared by
The parameter file INTKEY.INI is read automatically on entry. A taxon
list can be obtained from YNAMES.PRT.
first dialogue select the required data set (or enter the path to an
.INI file). The initial screen is set up for automatic identification
only. For manual operation, with all functions available, click
Commands can be entered in three ways:
At the menu bar.
On the toolbar.
On the command line (abbreviations permitted).
will abort most commands by successively closing windows;some commands
STOP button instead.
Ranges and Keywords
Most commands require a range of taxa or characters to be specified. This can be done singly, or in groups designated by the following keywords.
ALL NONE USED
AVAILABLE and predefined character groups. Characters
dependent on an unused character are not treated as available.
REMAINING ELIMINATED SPECIMEN (in process of
identification) and "taxon names". Further groups may be user-defined,
but are not pre-set.
The command opens a keyword list; then
enter all the keyword taxa/characters, or
followed by deselect-all, to make a selection. The selection can be
extended by shuttling back to the keyword list.
Entry takes the form of (taxon numbers); character numbers; character,state combinations; or "taxon names".Parentheses and quotes can be omitted if no blanks are included. The conjunctions -(to) and /(or) can be used. Text characters have "string" values, with leading or trailing blanks if desired;they are case insensitive.
Identification and interrogation proceed by eliminating taxa lacking the required attributes. Three strategies can be pursued:
Enter obvious or unusual characters to reduce size of data set.
USEopens a keyword menu. Command line entry for example character or state can omit use by being directly entered onto the command line.
DELETEallows characters in use to be changed or deleted. They can also be changed by re-entry on the command line.
Invite program help.
BESTsuggests best characters for dividing remaining taxa, their efficiency being assessed by a separation value.
SEPARATE(taxon number) suggests quickest characters when identity can be guessed.
Make critical comparisons. See description menu below.
RESTARTreadies program for next identification.
DESCRIBElists character states of designated taxa.
DIFFERENCESlists differences between designated taxa.
SIMILARITIESlists similarities between designated taxa.
DIAGNOSEprovides each of the designated taxa with a character set which differs in at least
DIAGLEVELcharacters from all other
INCLUDEd taxa(restrict these or it goes on for ever). Pre set characters will appear in every diagnosis; their presence speeds up the operation (default none).
MATCHis temporarily set to
SUMMARY reports the distribution of character states in a given char/taxon set.
TAXA opens a keyword window, then either
OKfor a full window display of keyword characters and their states; or
LISTfor a compact character list. Only
AVAILABLEcharacters are displayed, unless
USEDis a keyword.
Taxon lists show number of differences from specimen in parentheses.
TAXA<range> on command line is quicker.
TAXA specifies the data set on which subsequent commands operate. It overwrites any previous
TAXA <"keyword"range/previously defined keywordsrds>Gives a keyword name to a group of taxa.
Uunknowns match any value.
Iinapplicables match any value (unless a difference is implied by preset dependency declarations).
Ovalues match when ranges overlap.
Svalues match when one range is a subset of (included in) the other.
Evalues must match exactly.
The default setting
OUIis usually best. Use
SIMILARITIES;and for information retrieval (otherwise unknown states will count as hits).
SET FIX ON /OFF fixes a partial identification;
RESTARTreturns to this point for further identifications.
SET TOLERANCE n- the number of differences permitted before a species is eliminated. Default
SET DIAGLEVEL n- the number of diagnostic differences to be sought for each taxon. Default
SET EXACT. Characters regarded as not subject to error when
SET RELIABILITIES char,r- where
0-10. Defaults are pre set in INTKEY.INI
SET STOPBEST n- where
n= number of characters to be examined by
BEST(default 50).It starts with the most reliable characters, and sorts by descending separation value. Press Enter (without selection) to extend the search by another n characters.
SET RBASE n- where
n = 1(ignored) -
5(paramount)governs the effect of reliabilities when searching for
SET VARYWT n- where
n = 0(variable characters ranked low)
- 1(no penalty)governs the treatment of characters which vary within species; essentially whether
BESTmay split variable species or not.
STATUSreports current parameter settings.
FILE OUTPUT<filename>output is echoed to an append file. For long lists it is best to switch off screen pagination (
DISPLAY CONTINUOUS ON/OFF).
OUTPUTcommands always go to a file, which must have been declared but need not be on; turning it off (
OUTPUT OFF/ON) avoids collecting unintended clutter from screen display.
OUTPUT COMMENT<text>- text is copied to the output file; used to insert headings or directives.
OUTPUT CHAR/TAXAoutputs a list of char/taxon numbers, suitable for use as a
OUTPUT DESCRIBEoutputs a Delta format description.
OUTPUT SUMMARYoutputs a combined Delta format description for a designated group of species, such as a genus. Each state has a comment of the form
n= number of species exhibiting the state and m = number for which character recorded. The comment is reduced to
<n>when all taxa recorded;and omitted when all species have the same state.
OUTPUT DIAGNOSEoutputs diagnostic sets as a list of char/taxon numbers; suitable for
FILE DISPLAY<filename>displays file in a separate window.
FILE CLOSE<filename>releases a file from the program; it may be reopened. Closure is automatic on
Accesses a log file of previous commands, with facility for repeating them.
Window management. Cascades or tiles or closes open Windows.