GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Pentameris

HABIT Annual (10), or perennial (73). Rhizomes absent (78), or short (2), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (65), or present (19). Culms erect (12/26), or geniculately ascending (7/26), or decumbent (7/26), or rambling (3/26); 3–46.19–400 cm long; firm (80), or woody (2). Lateral branches lacking (44/63), or sparse (9/63), or ample (14/63). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (81), or erect (1). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform (26), or linear (57); herbaceous (73), or coriaceous (9); stiff (42), or firm (19), or flaccid (23). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (80), or pungent (7).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (80), or composed of racemes (2), or comprising only a few spikelets (1).

Panicle open (62/80), or contracted (20/80), or spiciform (3/80).

Racemes single (2/2); unilateral (2/2). Rhachis flattened (1/2), or subterete (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (2/2); 2 -rowed (2/2).

Spikelets appressed (3/4), or deflexed (1/4); solitary (81), or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or pedicelled (80); 2 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels filiform (64/64).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (78); without rhachilla extension (71), or with a barren rhachilla extension (19). Spikelets lanceolate (10), or oblong (3), or ovate (1), or cuneate (68); laterally compressed; 2–8.152–26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite (79/79). Floret callus brief (17), or evident (64), or elongated (1); pubescent (70/72), or pilose (1/72), or bearded (1/72); truncate (1), or obtuse (80), or pungent (1).

GLUMES Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (81); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (78), or firmer than fertile lemma (3); parallel to lemmas (14), or gaping (68). Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (11), or elliptic (68), or oblong (3); 1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (77), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (3); 1-keeled (77/77); 1 -veined (71/77), or 2 -veined (1/77), or 3 -veined (3/77), or 5 -veined (4/77), or 6–8 -veined (1/77). Lower glume lateral veins absent (70), or obscure (1), or distinct (11); without ribs (11/12), or ribbed (1/12). Lower glume surface smooth (73), or asperulous (18); without pits; glabrous (75), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (4), or pilose (4), or hirsute (3), or villous (3). Lower glume apex obtuse (6), or acute (24), or acuminate (51), or attenuate (6), or setaceously attenuate (3). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (11), or elliptic (68), or oblong (3); 1–2.11–5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (77), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (3); with undifferentiated margins (81), or membranous margins (1); 1-keeled (77/77); 1 -veined (71/77), or 2 -veined (1/77), or 3 -veined (4/77), or 5 -veined (3/77), or 6–8 -veined (2/77). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (11/12), or ribbed (1/12). Upper glume surface smooth (74), or asperulous (17); glabrous (75), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (5), or pilose (4), or hirsute (3), or villous (3); with simple hairs (10/12), or tubercle-based hairs (2/12). Upper glume apex obtuse (6), or acute (23), or acuminate (51), or attenuate (6), or setaceously attenuate (3).

FLORETS Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (81); membranous (81), or chartaceous (1); without keel (78), or keeled (4); wingless; 3 -veined (3/77), or 5 -veined (64/77), or 6 -veined (63/77), or 7 -veined (71/77), or 8 -veined (67/77), or 9 -veined (68/77), or 11 -veined (1/77). Lemma midvein eciliate (75), or ciliate (7), or pubescent (1). Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous (1); unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (20), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (9), or pilose (13), or hirsute (1), or villous (48); hairy on back (56/68), or on veins (9/68), or between veins (1/68), or between veins but central interspaces glabrous (1/68), or in lines (1/68); with simple hairs (66/68), or clavate hairs (2/68). Lemma margins eciliate (74), or ciliate (10). Lemma apex entire (11), or erose (1), or dentate (11), or lobed (62); 2 -fid (70/73), or 3 -fid (3/73); incised 0.1–0.3329–0.5 of lemma length; truncate (6/23), or obtuse (3/23), or acute (10/23), or acuminate (4/23); muticous (14), or awned (69); 1 -awned (1/69), or 3 -awned (68/69), or 4–5 -awned (1/69). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (69/69); straight (2/69), or curved (1/69), or geniculate (66/69). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (67/67). Palea 0.8–0.9875–1.1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (13/13). Palea keels separated (79), or approximate (3); eciliate (78), or puberulous (3), or ciliate (1). Palea surface glabrous (54), or pubescent (26), or pilose (3), or villous (7). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (80), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (1).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (80/80); fleshy (66/66); glabrous (78/80), or ciliate (3/80). Anthers 3 (75/75). Ovary glabrous (1/2), or pubescent on apex (1/2).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (68/78), or free brittle pericarp (10/78); fusiform (3/4), or orbicular (1/4); isodiametric (1/1).

DISTRIBUTION Africa (81), or Temperate Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or Antarctica (1).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.