GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Ehrharta

HABIT Annual (5), or perennial (31). Rhizomes absent (18), or short (9), or elongated (13). Stolons absent (34), or present (4). Culms erect (10/21), or geniculately ascending (4/21), or decumbent (10/21), or prostrate (2/21), or rambling (4/21); robust (1/4), or of moderate stature (1/4), or slender (2/4); 2–55.39–250 cm long; firm (28), or wiry (6), or woody (5); without nodal roots (1/4), or rooting from lower nodes (4/4). Lateral branches lacking (2/11), or sparse (1/11), or ample (4/11), or suffrutescent (5/11). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (35), or with blades commonly suppressed, transferring photosynthetic function to sheath and culm (1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (30), or erect (2), or falcate (4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (22), or a ciliolate membrane (14). Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous at the ligule (3); aciculate (1), or filiform (3), or linear (31), or lanceolate (2); herbaceous (35), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (33), or flaccid (2). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/2), or cartilaginous (1/2).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (29), or composed of racemes (11), or comprising only a few spikelets (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath, or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4).

Panicle open (27/29), or contracted (11/29), or spiciform (1/29), or capitate (1/29). Primary panicle branches not whorled (28/29), or whorled at lower nodes (1/29).

Racemes single (11/11); unilateral (4/4); bearing few fertile spikelets (5/11), or many spikelets (6/11); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 3–5 fertile spikelets on each (3/4), or 6 fertile spikelets on each (4/4), or 7–10 fertile spikelets on each (3/4). Rhachis angular (4/4). Spikelet packing contiguous (11/11), or lax (1/11); 2 -rowed (1/1).

Spikelets appressed (3/6), or spreading (5/6), or deflexed (2/6); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (4), or pedicelled (32). Pedicels filiform (13/14), or oblong (1/14).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (34), or with a barren rhachilla extension (3). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (29), or ovate (1), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 2–7.851–18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1), or elongated between basal sterile florets (3). Floret callus brief (35), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (3/19), or pubescent (13/19), or pilose (3/19), or bearded (2/19).

GLUMES Glumes both absent or obscure (1), or two (35); persistent (35/35); shorter than spikelet (32/35), or reaching apex of florets (6/35), or exceeding apex of florets (5/35); thinner than fertile lemma (35/35); parallel to lemmas (34/35), or gaping (3/35). Lower glume lanceolate (2/35), or elliptic (7/35), or oblong (7/35), or ovate (18/35), or oblate (1/35); 0.25–0.7821–1 length of upper glume; hyaline (12/35), or membranous (15/35), or chartaceous (9/35), or herbaceous (1/35); without keels (25/35), or 1-keeled (10/35); 1 -veined (7/33), or 3 -veined (17/33), or 4 -veined (4/33), or 5 -veined (12/33), or 6–7 -veined (2/33), or 8–9 -veined (1/33). Lower glume lateral veins absent (5/35), or distinct (30/35). Lower glume surface without pits (35/35); glabrous (35/35), or pubescent (1/35). Lower glume apex entire (33/35), or erose (2/35); truncate (1/34), or obtuse (10/34), or acute (14/34), or acuminate (10/34); muticous (34/35), or mucronate (1/35). Upper glume lanceolate (3/35), or elliptic (6/35), or oblong (8/35), or ovate (18/35); 0.2–0.7174–1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (12/35), or membranous (15/35), or chartaceous (9/35), or herbaceous (1/35); without keels (32/35), or 1-keeled (3/35); 1–5–9 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (31/32), or ribbed (1/32). Upper glume surface glabrous (35/35), or pubescent (1/35). Upper glume apex emarginate (2/34), or truncate (2/34), or obtuse (7/34), or acute (14/34), or acuminate (10/34); muticous (34/35), or mucronate (1/35).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (6), or elliptic (20), or oblong (8), or ovate (3); 0.33–0.9162–2 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (1), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (1), or cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (15); 3–4 -veined (4/31), or 5 -veined (28/31), or 6 -veined (8/31), or 7 -veined (11/31), or 8–9 -veined (2/31), or 10–11 -veined (1/31); without ribs (29), or ribbed (8); emarginate (1), or truncate (2), or obtuse (13), or acute (9), or acuminate (6), or attenuate (5); muticous (19), or mucronate (6), or awned (16). Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (25), or oblong (4), or ovate (5); hyaline (1), or membranous (2), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (21), or coriaceous (12); of similar consistency on margins (35), or much thinner on margins (1); keeled; wingless; 3–4 -veined (2/28), or 5 -veined (20/28), or 6 -veined (6/28), or 7 -veined (13/28), or 8 -veined (1/28), or 9 -veined (2/28). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (33), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4); without ribs (35), or ribbed (1). Lemma surface smooth (34), or asperulous (1), or tuberculate (2); unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (32), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (35), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex entire (34), or erose (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (9/35), or obtuse (14/35), or acute (12/35), or acuminate (1/35); without ornament (33), or cucullate (1), or pubescent (2); muticous, or mucronate (1). Palea 0.66–0.8157–1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (35); 1 -veined (6/28), or 2 -veined (21/28), or 3 -veined (1/28); 1-keeled (6), or 2-keeled (30). Palea keels separated (9/30), or approximate (21/30); smooth (35), or scaberulous (1); eciliate (35), or ciliate (1).

FLOWER Lodicules 2; membranous; glabrous (34), or ciliate (2); 2-toothed (3/3); obtuse (1/1). Anthers 2 (6/23), or 3 (1/23), or 4 (9/23), or 6 (8/23).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); linear (1/3), or lanceolate (1/3), or ovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis.

CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (35), or present (1).

DISTRIBUTION Africa (24), or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (4), or North America (1), or South America (2).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.