GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Calamagrostis

HABIT Annual (2), or perennial (264). Rhizomes absent (178), or short (47), or elongated (46). Stolons absent (262), or present (5). Culms erect (178/203), or geniculately ascending (41/203), or decumbent (6/203), or rambling (2/203); reed-like (1/22), or robust (5/22), or slender (16/22); 2–57.55–1120 cm long; firm (265), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (2/3). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1); terete (2/3), or elliptical in section (1/3). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/1); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (65/68), or sparse (4/68), or ample (2/68). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (263), or erect (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (248), or a ciliolate membrane (22). Leaf-blades aciculate (5), or filiform (29), or linear (233), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); herbaceous (253), or coriaceous (15); stiff (59), or firm (205), or flaccid (2); without exudate (264), or pruinose (2). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (3/3). Leaf-blade apex muticous (249), or pungent (17).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (259), or an inflated leaf-sheath (7); exserted (261), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5).

Panicle open (132), or contracted (101), or spiciform (48), or capitate (2). Primary panicle branches not whorled (241), or whorled at lower nodes (4), or whorled at most nodes (21).

Spikelets appressed (4/5), or ascending (1/5); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (265). Pedicels filiform (40/46), or linear (1/46), or clavate (5/46); tip widened (5/5).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); without rhachilla extension (24), or with a barren rhachilla extension (244), or with diminished florets at the apex (3). Spikelets lanceolate (249), or elliptic (7), or oblong (4), or ovate (3), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 1.245–5.125–14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (265/265). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (250), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (16); definite (1/1); pilose (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (12), or sparsely hairy (4), or pubescent (89), or pilose (58), or bearded (115); obtuse (265), or acute (1).

GLUMES Glumes persistent (265/265); shorter than spikelet (13/265), or reaching apex of florets (51/265), or exceeding apex of florets (206/265); thinner than fertile lemma (12), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (9), or firmer than fertile lemma (245); parallel to lemmas (182), or recurved at apex (2), or gaping (83). Lower glume linear (5), or lanceolate (250), or elliptic (8), or oblong (1), or ovate (5); not clasping (1/1); 0.66–0.9925–1.4 length of upper glume; membranous (253), or chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (9); without keels (3/265), or 1-keeled (263/265); 0 -veined (1/261), or 1 -veined (245/261), or 2 -veined (2/261), or 3 -veined (17/261), or 4–5 -veined (1/261), or 7 -veined (1/261). Lower glume lateral veins absent (244), or obscure (4), or distinct (21). Lower glume surface smooth (188), or asperulous (55), or scabrous (29); without pits; glabrous (261), or puberulous (3), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex entire (263), or erose (3), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (16), or acute (143), or acuminate (106), or attenuate (10), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (262), or mucronate (5), or awned (2). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (3), or lanceolate (249), or elliptic (9), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); 0.4–1.269–3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (252/265), or chartaceous (4/265), or coriaceous (9/265); with undifferentiated margins (243), or hyaline margins (8), or membranous margins (2), or scarious margins (13); without keels (3/265), or 1-keeled (263/265); 0 -veined (1/216), or 1 -veined (106/216), or 2 -veined (27/216), or 3 -veined (134/216), or 4 -veined (1/216), or 5 -veined (2/216). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (259/265), or ciliolate (6/265), or ciliate (1/265). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (199/200), or ribbed (1/200). Upper glume surface smooth (187), or asperulous (54), or scabrous (32); glabrous (261), or puberulous (3), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex entire (263), or erose (3), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1), or obtuse (17), or acute (140), or acuminate (103), or attenuate (12), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (263), or mucronate (5), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).

FLORETS Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (200), or elliptic (8), or oblong (48), or ovate (19); laterally compressed (1/1); lanceolate in profile (1/1); hyaline (13), or membranous (226), or chartaceous (13), or cartilaginous (10), or coriaceous (4); of similar consistency above (260), or much thinner above (6); of similar consistency on margins (265), or much thinner on margins (1); without keel (263/265), or keeled (3/265); wingless; 0 -veined (3/218), or 1–2 -veined (1/218), or 3 -veined (16/218), or 4 -veined (8/218), or 5 -veined (203/218), or 6 -veined (2/218), or 7 -veined (4/218). Lemma midvein eciliate (265), or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (17/31), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (1/31), or distinct (8/31), or prominent (6/31); without ribs (264), or ribbed (2); excurrent (13/22), or extending close to apex (11/22). Lemma surface smooth (152), or asperulous (19), or scaberulous (79), or scabrous (30), or papillose (1), or punctate (1); unwrinkled, or rugulose (1); without grooves; glabrous (258), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (4), or pilose (1), or hispidulous (1); without hair tufts (265), or with basal hair tufts near margin (1). Lemma apex entire (81), or erose (46), or dentate (153), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (74/150), or 3 -fid (19/150), or 4 -fid (83/150), or 5 -fid (1/150); incised 0.2–0.265–0.33 of lemma length; emarginate (5/90), or truncate (49/90), or obtuse (19/90), or acute (16/90), or acuminate (7/90); muticous (17), or pungent (1), or mucronate (5), or awned (255); 1 -awned (247/256), or 3 -awned (2/256), or 5 -awned (7/256). Principal lemma awn apical (1/257), or subapical (24/257), or from a sinus (7/257), or dorsal (230/257); straight (109/257), or curved (18/257), or flexuous (6/257), or geniculate (141/257); attenuate (256/257), or pungent (1/257), or with clavate limb (1/257); 0.8–1.375–2.5 length of lemma. Column of lemma awn glabrous (145/147), or hispidulous (1/147), or puberulous (1/147). Palea 0.3–0.8698–1 length of lemma; hyaline (38), or membranous (228); 0 -veined (1/44), or 2 -veined (43/44); without keels (1), or 2-keeled (265). Palea keels separated (261/265), or approximate (3/265), or contiguous above a sulcus (1/265); smooth (220/265), or scaberulous (34/265), or scabrous (11/265); eciliate (263/265), or ciliolate (2/265). Palea apex erose (1/5), or dentate (4/5). Apical sterile florets 0 in number (1/3), or 1 in number (3/3); rudimentary (2/3), or linear (1/3). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (1/3), or awned (2/3).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (240/240); membranous (12/12); glabrous (239/240), or ciliate (1/240); emarginate (1/1). Anthers 1 (1/264), or 2 (2/264), or 3 (261/264). Stigmas 2 (230/230). Ovary glabrous (5/5).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (250/250); lanceolate (6/31), or fusiform (10/31), or ellipsoid (3/31), or oblong (10/31), or ovoid (3/31); trigonous (1/1). Embryo 0.15–0.26–0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (222/226), or elliptic (1/226), or linear (3/226).

CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (265), or present (1); in lower sheaths (1/1).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (15), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (80), or Tropical Asia (31), or Australasia (40), or Pacific (2), or North America (38), or South America (99), or Antarctica (1).

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