GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Brachiaria

HABIT Annual (76), or perennial (46). Rhizomes absent (114), or short (7), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (113), or present (12). Culms erect (20/96), or geniculately ascending (41/96), or decumbent (48/96), or prostrate (12/96), or rambling (5/96), or scandent (1/96); robust (3/18), or slender (13/18), or weak (2/18); 2–49.57–210 cm long; firm (116), or wiry (4), or woody (2); without nodal roots (7/44), or with prop roots (1/44), or rooting from lower nodes (42/44). Culm-internodes terete (3/5), or channelled (2/5), or elliptical in section (1/5). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3/19), or sparse (4/19), or ample (12/19), or fastigiate (3/19), or suffrutescent (1/19). Ligule an eciliate membrane (5), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or a ciliate membrane (12), or a fringe of hairs (98), or absent (3). Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (2), or linear (72), or lanceolate (75), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); membranous (1), or herbaceous (120), or coriaceous (1); stiff (4), or firm (118). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (37/37).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (1), or composed of racemes (120), or comprising only a few spikelets (1); terminal (120), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (117), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5).

Panicle open (1/1).

Racemes single (5/120), or paired (1/120), or borne along a central axis (118/120); not compacted (116/118), or in a multilateral false spike (1/118), or in an interrupted false spike (1/118), or in a head (1/118); appressed (8/120), or erect (4/120), or ascending (111/120), or spreading (2/120), or deflexed (2/120); linear (120/121), or oblong (2/121), or globose (1/121); unilateral (120/120); bearing few fertile spikelets (3/121), or many spikelets (118/121); bearing 2–9–30 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis tip without extension (118/119), or filiform (4/119). Rhachis wingless (91/121), or narrowly winged (16/121), or broadly winged (16/121); herbaceous (15/16), or foliaceous (1/16); not appreciably folded (30/31), or folded longitudinally to embrace spikelets (1/31); flattened (1/99), or angular (92/99), or subterete (4/99), or semiterete (2/99); terminating in a spikelet (119/121), or sterile spikelet (2/121). Spikelet packing adaxial (84/85), or abaxial (1/85); crowded (11/121), or contiguous (84/121), or lax (16/121), or distant (10/121); 1 -rowed (17/62), or 2 -rowed (53/62), or 3 -rowed (1/62), or 4 -rowed (2/62). Raceme-bases brief (119/121), or filiform (1/121), or linear (1/121).

Spikelets appressed (3/7), or ascending (1/7), or spreading (1/7), or pectinate (2/7); solitary (87), or in pairs (59), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (3). Fertile spikelets sessile (33), or sessile and pedicelled (17), or pedicelled (73); 1 in the cluster (1/5), or 2 in the cluster (5/5), or 3–4 in the cluster (3/5). Pedicels filiform (8/60), or linear (32/60), or oblong (22/60), or reduced to a stump (1/60); tip oblique (3/9), or widened (1/9), or discoid (4/9), or cupuliform (1/9).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (121), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or elliptic (75), or oblong (16), or ovate (24), or orbicular (3), or obovate (9); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (121); symmetrical (114), or gibbous (1), or turgidly plano-convex (3), or plano-convex (4); 1.494–3.466–8.5 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (96), or square (14), or oblong (10), or cuneate (2), or linear (1); free from lower glume (112), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (10); pubescent (3/4), or pilose (1/4); base pungent (3/3); attached obliquely (2/2). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (91), or elongated between glumes (31), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (2/2).

GLUMES Glumes shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (118); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (4), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or ovate (96), or orbicular (5), or oblate (3), or obovate (4); clasping (58/58); hyaline (8/121), or membranous (112/121), or cartilaginous (1/121); without keels; 0–5–15 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or obscure (2), or distinct (107), or prominent (1); without ribs (109/110), or ribbed (1/110). Lower glume surface convex (121), or grooved on either side of midvein (1); smooth (121), or scabrous (1); without pits; glabrous (89), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (21), or pilose (6), or hirsute (1), or villous (6), or hispidulous (1); without hair tufts, or with a dorsal tuft of hair (1). Lower glume apex emarginate (1), or truncate (4), or obtuse (53), or acute (75), or acuminate (9). Upper glume elliptic (24), or oblong (43), or ovate (51), or obovate (4); 1.2–1.481–2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (117), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (4); without keels; 3–6–13 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (120), or ribbed (2); without cross-veins (1/19), or transversely connected at apex (2/19), or with cross-veins (17/19). Upper glume surface smooth (120), or scabrous (1), or tuberculate (1); glabrous (70), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (47), or pilose (9), or hirsute (1), or villous (8), or hispidulous (1), or setose (1); with simple hairs (65/68), or tubercle-based hairs (2/68), or clavate hairs (1/68); without hair tufts (110), or with marginal tufts of hair (1), or with transverse tufts of hair (1), or with a transverse fringe of hair (12). Upper glume apex obtuse (34/119), or acute (73/119), or acuminate (12/119), or cuspidate (3/119), or rostrate (2/119); muticous (121), or mucronate (1).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (70), or barren (63); with palea (103), or without significant palea (21). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (20), or oblong (42), or ovate (56), or obovate (4); 2.1–2.3–2.5 length of fertile lemma; membranous (115/121), or chartaceous (1/121), or cartilaginous (5/121), or coriaceous (2/121); 3–5–13 -veined; without ribs (120), or ribbed (2); without grooves (113), or sulcate (9); obtuse (28/117), or acute (80/117), or acuminate (9/117), or cuspidate (4/117), or rostrate (1/117); muticous (120), or mucronate (1), or awned (3). Palea of lower sterile floret wingless (102/103), or winged on keels (1/103). Fertile lemma lanceolate (4/121), or elliptic (93/121), or oblong (12/121), or ovate (14/121), or obovate (1/121); dorsally compressed (1/1); not gibbous (120), or gibbous (2); hemispherical (1/1); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (117); without keel (121), or keeled (1); wingless; 3 -veined (2/10), or 5 -veined (8/10). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (72), or granulose (21), or papillose (12), or striate (19), or punctate (2), or pitted (1); unwrinkled (67), or rugulose (37), or rugose (21), or corrugate (3); without grooves. Lemma margins flat (1), or involute (121); exposing palea (121), or covering most of palea (1). Lemma apex obtuse (43/115), or acute (50/115), or apiculate (25/115), or rostrate (2/115); without ornament (118), or laterally pinched (2), or pubescent (3); muticous (106), or mucronate (19), or awned (2); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn limb glabrous (18/19), or puberulous (1/19). Palea not rolled (3), or involute (119); 1 length of lemma; membranous (1), or chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (116); without keels (117), or 2-keeled (5).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (4/4); fleshy (1/1). Anthers 3 (27/27).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (9/9); ellipsoid (8/11), or oblong (1/11), or ovoid (2/11), or orbicular (1/11). Embryo 0.5–0.6525–0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/6), or elliptic (4/6), or linear (2/6); 0.25–0.29–0.33 length of caryopsis.

DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Africa (80), or Temperate Asia (22), or Tropical Asia (27), or Australasia (25), or Pacific (10), or North America (19), or South America (23).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.