GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Bothriochloa

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (32), or short (1), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (34), or present (2). Culms erect (21/26), or geniculately ascending (15/26), or decumbent (1/26), or rambling (1/26); robust (2/3), or slender (1/3); 7–76.25–200 cm long; firm (34), or wiry (1); rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (1/7), or channelled (4/7), or elliptical in section (2/7). Lateral branches lacking (6/13), or sparse (7/13), or ample (4/13), or fastigiate (1/13). Ligule an eciliate membrane (19), or a ciliolate membrane (16). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (33), or lanceolate (2); stiff (2), or firm (33); without exudate (34), or pruinose (1); without scent (33), or aromatic (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (2), or composed of racemes (34); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1).

Racemes paired (1/34), or digitate (23/34), or borne along a central axis (12/34); not compacted (31/34), or in a multilateral false spike (3/34); erect (2/34), or ascending (32/34), or spreading (1/34); bearing 5–12 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis tough (1), or fragile at the nodes (34); flattened (34/34). Rhachis internodes indefinite (1), or filiform (1), or linear (32), or oblong (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse (34/34); cupuliform (2/2). Raceme-bases brief (30), or filiform (3), or linear (3).

Spikelets in pairs (34/34). Fertile spikelets sessile (34/34); 1 in the cluster (34/34). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (34/34); 1 in the cluster (34/34). Pedicels linear (34), or oblong (1); with a translucent median line (also present in internodes).

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (6), or well-developed (29); persistent (1/3), or separately deciduous (2/3).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (19), or oblong (4), or ovate (9); dorsally compressed; 2.49–4.821–9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (1), or with accessory branch structures (34). Spikelet callus pubescent (3/28), or pilose (15/28), or bearded (11/28); base obtuse (34/34); attached transversely (34/34).

GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture (1), or firmer than fertile lemma (34). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (24), or oblong (1), or ovate (9); membranous (1/34), or chartaceous (6/34), or cartilaginous (24/34), or coriaceous (3/34); without keels; 5–8–18 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (34). Lower glume surface convex (1), or flat (33), or concave (1); smooth (32), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); without pits (26), or pitted (15); glabrous (12), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (5), or pilose (17), or villous (2). Lower glume apex entire (32), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); emarginate (2/9), or truncate (5/9), or obtuse (1/9), or acute (4/9). Upper glume lanceolate (31), or elliptic (4); 1-keeled (34/34); 3 -veined (7/7). Upper glume surface smooth (33), or asperulous (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/8), or acute (4/8), or acuminate (4/8); muticous (31), or mucronate (4).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (6/31), or oblong (25/31), or ovate (1/31); hyaline; 0 -veined (3/4), or 1–3 -veined (1/4); obtuse (1/3), or acute (2/3). Fertile lemma linear (33), or oblong (2); hyaline; without keel; wingless; 1 -veined (1/3), or 3 -veined (2/3). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (34), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex entire (32), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (3/3); incised 0.25–0.29–0.33 of lemma length; muticous (2), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (32), or from a sinus (3); straight (3), or geniculate (32). Palea present (6), or absent or minute (30); 0.25–0.29–0.33 length of lemma; hyaline (3/6), or membranous (3/6). Palea apex erose (1/1).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (2/2). Anthers 1 (1/30), or 3 (29/30).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (3/3); ellipsoid (1/4), or ovoid (1/4), or obovoid (1/4), or oblanceolate (1/4).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (2), or Africa (5), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (11), or Australasia (9), or Pacific (5), or North America (14), or South America (19).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.