GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Alopecurus

HABIT Annual (16), or perennial (26). Rhizomes absent (23), or short (7), or elongated (10). Stolons absent (39), or present (1). Culms erect (25/36), or geniculately ascending (19/36), or decumbent (5/36); 3–30.77–120 cm long; without nodal roots (2/4), or rooting from lower nodes (3/4). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or sparse (2/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (3), or linear (38); stiff (1), or firm (38), or flaccid (1); without exudate (39), or pruinose (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (18), or an inflated leaf-sheath (25); exserted (37), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Peduncle cylindrical at apex (1/2), or tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/2).

Panicle spiciform (37), or glomerate (1), or capitate (6).

Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear (1), or oblong (39).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (16), or oblong (24), or ovate (2); laterally compressed; 1.8–4.281–8.5 mm long; falling entire.

GLUMES Glumes free (5), or connate along margins below (36); shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (17), or exceeding apex of florets (22); parallel to lemmas (29), or recurved at apex (12). Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (19), or elliptic (4), or oblong (15), or ovate (2); not gibbous (39), or gibbous (1); 1–1.002–1.1 length of upper glume; membranous (37), or cartilaginous (2), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled; wingless (34), or winged on keel (6); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (39). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (39). Lower glume surface without pits; glabrous (12), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (10), or pilose (13), or villous (2), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex truncate (2), or obtuse (8), or acute (24), or acuminate (6), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (2), or cuspidate (1); muticous (27), or mucronate (6), or awned (10). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (18), or elliptic (5), or oblong (15), or ovate (2); not gibbous (39), or gibbous (1); 0.8–1.101–1.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (37), or cartilaginous (2), or coriaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (38), or hyaline margins (2); 1-keeled; wingless (34), or winged on keel (6); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (39). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (1), or ciliolate (5), or ciliate (34). Upper glume lateral veins convergent at apex (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (12), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (10), or pilose (13), or villous (2), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Upper glume apex truncate (2/39), or obtuse (9/39), or acute (22/39), or acuminate (6/39), or attenuate (1/39), or setaceously attenuate (2/39), or cuspidate (1/39); muticous (27), or mucronate (6), or awned (10); 1 -awned (10/10).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (5), or oblong (20), or ovate (14); membranous; keeled; wingless; 3 -veined (2), or 4 -veined (8), or 5 -veined (30). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (34), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (3), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (39), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins free (8), or connate below (33); eciliate (38), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (38), or erose (2); truncate (20), or obtuse (13), or acute (7), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (1); without ornament (39), or pubescent (1); muticous (3), or awned (38); 1 -awned (38/38). Principal lemma awn dorsal (38/38); straight (14/38), or curved (4/38), or geniculate (24/38). Palea present (15), or absent or minute (26); 0.5–0.6375–0.9 length of lemma; 1 -veined (6/6); 1-keeled (4/15), or 2-keeled (11/15). Palea keels eciliate (13/15), or ciliate (2/15).

FLOWER Lodicules absent (39/39). Anthers 2 (1/39), or 3 (38/39). Stigmas plumose (4), or pubescent (36). Ovary glabrous (36/36).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (37/37). Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (36/36).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (15), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (34), or Tropical Asia (7), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (8), or South America (8), or Antarctica (1).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.