GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Cynosurus echinatus

HABIT Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10–100 cm long; 2–6 -noded. Leaf-sheaths without keel; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 5–10 mm long; obtuse. Leaf-blades 5–20 cm long; 3–10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially.

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle.

Panicle contracted; oblong, or ovate, or globose; secund; 1–8 cm long; 1–2 cm wide. Panicle branches smooth.

Spikelets in pairs, or in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 1–2 in the cluster.

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; obovate; laterally compressed; 7–13 mm long; longer than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 6–18; exserted from glumes; 2.5–5 mm long (lanceolate); 1-awned; with 1.4–3 mm long awn.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1–5 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 8–14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.

GLUMES Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate; 7–12 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex attenuate. Upper glume lanceolate; 7–12 mm long; 1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 2 -veined. Upper glume apex attenuate.

FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; 5–7 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical, or from a sinus; 6–16 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Rhachilla extension 0.25 length of fertile floret.

FLOWER Anthers 3; 2.5–4 mm long.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; 3–4 mm long. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.

DISTRIBUTION Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, and south. Asia-temperate: Caucasus, western Asia, and Arabia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, southwest USA, and southeast USA. South America: southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.