GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M.S. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Default Character Set / Implicit Attributes

Unless indicated otherwise, the following attributes are implicit throughout the descriptions, except where the characters concerned are inapplicable.

HABIT Persisting. Roots simple. Rhizomes absent. Stolons absent. Butt sheaths not bulbous; with white hairs; withering. Basal innovations subterete. Culms firm; tough; not swollen at the base. Culm-internodes with simple hairs. Branch complement at the node. Culm-sheaths without basal lobes. Leaves apparently irregular; differentiated into sheath and blade; all alike. Leaf-sheaths without exudate; with simple hairs. Leaf-sheath auricles absent. Collar without external ligule. Leaf-blade base simple; without a false petiole. Leaf-blades ascending; straight; not inverted; persistent; linear; flat; herbaceous; firm; without exudate; without scent. Leaf-blade venation parallel; without cross veins. Leaf-blade surface moderately hairy; with simple hairs. Leaf-blade margins entire; hairy all along. Leaf-blade apex muticous; simple; without special vesture.

INFLORESCENCE Flowering specimens described. Bisexual; with male and female spikelets in different inflorescences. Synflorescence simple; without prophylls; on the same culm as leaves. Inflorescence terminal; aerial; bearing well-developed spikelets at emergence; not deciduous as a whole; without bracts; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath; exserted. Spatheole cymbiform or tubular. Peduncle distinct; straight; persistent.

Panicle truncate or rounded at the ends; equilateral; bearing many spikelets; evenly furnished. Primary panicle branches free; not whorled; moderately divided; branching laterally; naked below; without sterile bristles. Panicle axis glabrous; with simple hairs; bearing persistent branches. Panicle branches flexible; without exudate; glabrous; hairy generally; with simple hairs.

Racemes few; simply spaced; not compacted; side by side; ascending; linear; straight; ragged; bearing many spikelets; simple. Central inflorescence axis unspecialized; tough; tip without extension. Rhachis evident; tough; persistent; with persistent secondary branchlets; wingless; herbaceous; not appreciably folded; drab; terminating in a spikelet. Spikelet packing alternate; contiguous; with subequal internodes. Rhachis internodes indefinite; falling with spikelet alongside; unspecialized. Raceme-bases brief; simple; hairy generally; unappendaged.

Fertile spikelets all alike. Involucre free throughout. Involucral bristles simple; few; without exudate; attenuate. Pedicels free; without a translucent median line; without appendage.

STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets absent; not involucral; with normal internodes; persistent. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels free. Basal sterile spikelet glumes wingless; without depressions.

Companion sterile spikelets absent. Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct. Companion sterile spikelet glumes similar on margins; wingless; without depressions; with white hairs; awn glabrous.

Apical sterile spikelets absent.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets moderately proportioned; of unremarkable solid shape; straight; compressed moderately; symmetrical; deciduous from the base; without secondary abscission; rhachilla deciduous; tough throughout. Spikelet callus brief; free from lower glume; simple. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation glabrous. Rhachilla internodes definite; narrow; straight; glabrous; hairy all along. Floret callus brief; straight; without wings; obtuse.

GLUMES Glumes two; distichous; free; similar to fertile lemma in texture; dull; parallel to lemmas. Lower glume not gibbous; of similar consistency above; of similar consistency on margins; without exudate; without oil streaks; keeled all along; keeled sharply; wingless; winged moderately. Lower glume primary vein eciliate. Lower glume lateral veins distinct; without ribs; dissociated from keel. Lower glume surface convex; impressed throughout; smooth; rough generally; not waisted; without pits; glabrous; hairy generally; with simple hairs; without hair tufts. Lower glume margins eciliate. Lower glume apex entire; muticous. Lower glume awn terminal; straight; without vesture. Upper glume without auricles; not gibbous; of similar consistency above; with undifferentiated margins; not thinner in the body; without exudate; keeled all along; wingless. Upper glume primary vein distinct; not depressed; eciliate. Upper glume lateral veins distinct; without ribs. Upper glume surface smooth; rough generally; glabrous; hairy generally; with simple hairs; without hair tufts. Upper glume margins eciliate. Upper glume apex entire; muticous. Upper glume awn terminal.

FLORETS Basal sterile florets developed. Lemma of lower sterile floret present; unlike other scales; without auricles; not gibbous; of similar consistency above; of similar consistency on margins; not thinner in the body; eglandular; without keels; wingless; distinctly veined; without ribs; without grooves; smooth; rough throughout; glabrous; hairy all along; hairy generally; with simple hairs; without hair tufts; eciliate on midvein; eciliate on margins; entire; muticous. Awn of lower sterile floret terminal; straight. Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline; wingless. Lemma of upper sterile floret basally simple; smooth; glabrous; eciliate on midvein; eciliate on margins; entire; muticous. Awn of upper sterile floret terminal. Fertile florets decreasing in size upwards; bisexual; all alike. Lowest fertile lemma of similar consistency to adjacent lemma. Fertile lemma present; moderately prportioned; without auricles; not gibbous; of similar consistency above; of similar consistency on margins; dull; eglandular; without exudate; distinctly keeled; keeled all along; wingless. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness; eciliate; hairy all along. Lemma lateral veins without ribs; unbranched. Lemma surface smooth; rough generally; unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous; hairy all along; hairy on back; with simple hairs; without hair tufts. Lemma margins free; flat; exposing palea; without distinctive roughness; eciliate; hairy all along. Lemma apex entire; with simple equal lobes; without ornament; without appendage; muticous. Principal lemma awn median; apical; straight; ascending; simple at base; attenuate; clearly exserted from spikelet; without a column; persistent; limb glabrous; hairy throughout limb. Middle segment of lemma awn glabrous. Column of lemma awn glabrous; hairy generally; without distinct apical hairs. Lateral lemma awns arising on apex; persistent; of equal width; glabrous. Palea present; free; embraced by lemma; with entire flaps; not rolled; straight; membranous; 2-keeled. Palea keels separated; unthickened; wingless; with entire wings; smooth; eciliate. Palea surface glabrous; with simple hairs. Palea apex undifferentiated; muticous; awns glabrous. Rhachilla extension glabrous. Apical sterile florets distinct from fertile; deciduous with fertile floret; similar; separate. Apical sterile lemmas wingless; glabrous; adorned all over; entire; muticous. Apical sterile lemma awns terminal; straight; glabrous.

FLOWER Lodicules free; glabrous. Filaments free. Staminodes absent. Stigmas plumose. Ovary unappendaged.

FRUIT Secondary disseminule none.

MALE Male inflorescence with non-pectinate racemes. Male spikelets without rhachilla extension.

CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent. Vegetative proliferation absent. Vivipary absent.

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Version: 8th November 2006.