GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or elongated (2). Culms erect (2), or geniculately ascending (1); 20–46.66–100 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (2), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear (1), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (1). Leaf-blade venation slanting obliquely from midrib; with distinct cross veins.

INFLORESCENCE Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1).

Panicle open (2), or contracted (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (2), or whorled at most nodes (1).

Racemes borne along a central axis (1/1); appressed (1/1). Spikelet packing distant (1/1).

Sexes mixed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (2); 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets pedicelled; 1 in a cluster. Pedicels linear (2/2).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets orbicular; cochleate; laterally compressed; gibbous; 2.49–4.681–7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.

GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.66–0.8867–1 length of upper glume; membranous (2), or herbaceous (1); without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface without pits; pubescent. Lower glume apex cuspidate. Upper glume ovate; 0.3–0.6167–1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (2), or herbaceous (1); without keels; 1 -veined, or 2–3 -veined (2). Upper glume surface pubescent; with hooked hairs. Upper glume apex cuspidate.

FLORETS Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma orbicular; gibbous; chartaceous; without keel; wingless; 5 -veined (2), or 9 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins ribbed. Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; pubescent; with hooked hairs. Lemma margins closed except for an apical pore; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea 0.5–0.58–0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels contiguous above a sulcus; eciliate (2), or puberulous (1).

FLOWER Lodicules absent. Anthers 6. Stigmas 3; pubescent. Ovary pubescent all over (2/2).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.

MALE Male spikelets similar to female but less developed. Male spikelet glumes 2.

DISTRIBUTION Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia, or Australasia (1), or Pacific (2).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.