GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms scandent; 500–1000–1500 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/1). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many; in a clump; with 1 branch dominant; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths persistent (1/1); without auricles (1/1). Culm-sheath blade linear (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate.

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; scanty; with spathaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet.

Fertile spikelets sessile.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 14–25.25–40.8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation stout (1), or slender (1).

GLUMES Glumes two, or several (1); persistent; shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets (1). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or ovate (1); 0.7–0.75–0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 13 -veined (1/1). Lower glume surface without pits. Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute. Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 19 -veined (1/1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (1), or acuminate (1).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate; chartaceous; without keel; wingless; 7 -veined (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (1), or granulose (1); unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma apex acute. Palea 1 length of lemma; chartaceous; 6 -veined (1/1). Palea keels approximate. Apical sterile florets 0 in number (1), or 1 in number; barren; linear.

FLOWER Lodicules 3; glabrous (1), or ciliate (1). Anthers 6. Stigmas 2. Ovary umbonate; pubescent on apex (1/1).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.