GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (2), or elongated (1). Culms erect (1), or geniculately ascending (2), or decumbent (3); 3–61–120 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane (2), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; stiff. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex pungent.

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (3), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2).

Panicle contracted.

Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (3), or 3–4 fertile florets (2), or 5–6 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 7–11.62–24 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes; definite. Floret callus evident; pubescent; pungent.

GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (2). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3); 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 7 -veined, or 8–9 -veined (3), or 10–11 -veined (1). Lower glume surface smooth (1), or asperulous (3); without pits; glabrous, or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (1). Upper glume lanceolate; 2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 5–6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined, or 8–9 -veined (3), or 10–11 -veined (1). Upper glume surface smooth (1), or asperulous (3); glabrous, or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (1).

FLORETS Fertile lemma oblong; chartaceous; much thinner above; without keel; wingless; 9 -veined. Lemma lateral veins without ribs (2), or ribbed (2). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; pubescent; hairy between veins; with a transverse row of hair tufts. Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliolate (2). Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.4–0.5063–0.6 of lemma length; acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight (3), or geniculate (3). Palea 0.75 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (1/1).

DISTRIBUTION Africa, or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (1).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.