GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms scandent; 600–1216–2500 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many; in a clump; subtended by a bare patch above the node; with 1 branch dominant. Culm-sheaths deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle; without auricles (2), or auriculate (1). Culm-sheath blade lanceolate, or ovate (2). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (2), or falcate (1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; linear (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (1).

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; fasciculate; with glumaceous subtending bracts; without axillary buds at base of spikelet (1), or with axillary buds at base of spikelet (2).

Fertile spikelets sessile.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 3–5 fertile florets (1), or 6–9 fertile florets (2), or 10–27 fertile florets, or 28–30 fertile florets (2); with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; subterete; 9–164.6–370 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite.

GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (1), or several (2); persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume surface without pits (2/2). Upper glume lanceolate; 0.6–0.7–0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 5 -veined (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (2), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/1).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate, or ovate (2); chartaceous; without keel; wingless; 3–4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined, or 6 -veined (1). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (1), or puberulous (2). Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex acuminate; muticous (2), or mucronate (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; chartaceous; 1 -veined (1/1); without keels (2), or 2-keeled (1). Palea surface glabrous (1), or pubescent (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Lodicules 3; membranous (2/2); ciliate. Anthers 2. Stigmas 2. Ovary glabrous.

FRUIT Caryopsis with fleshy pericarp; obovoid.


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.