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Soliva Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. : (1794)..

Lectotype (selected by Rydberg, N. Amer. Fl. 34: 287, 1916): Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav.


Ariza Espinar, L. (1997). Soliva. In: Tribu VII. Anthemideae. 280. Asteraceae, parte 7. Flora Fanerogmica Argentina. Fasc. 46. Programa PROFLORA (CONICET), C rdoba. pp. 135. [2428]

Cabrera, A. L. (1949). Sinopsis del gnero Soliva (Compositae). Notas Mus La Plata, Bot. 14(No. 70): 123139.

Soliva aphanes Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(4): 51 (1856) = Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet

Soliva lusitanica (Spreng.) Less., Syn. Gen. Comp. : 268 (1832) = Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet

Soliva mexicana DC., Prodr. 6: 143 (1838) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Soliva minuta (L.f.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2 : 317 (1830) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Soliva pedicellata Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. : 113 (1794) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Soliva pedunculata Ruiz & Pav. ex Steud., Nomen. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 609 (1841), nom. superfl. illegit. (based on é–‘Gymnostyles peruviana) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Soliva pygmaea Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 238 (1818) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Loudon, Hort. Brit.: 364 (1830), comb. superfl. = Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet

Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. : 243 (1827).

Hippia stolonifera Brot., Fl. Lusit. 1: 372, Pl. 61, f. 2. (Nov. 1804). Type: Habitat frequens in humescentibus, ad vias, et inter viarum petras, circa Conimbricam, Olisiponem, et alibi. Flor. hyeme et vere. Ann. Type material possibly in LISU. Note: Brotero, and other authors, mention this name from Broteros Phytographia Lusitaniae Selectior, p. 14 (1800); it is possible the name should date from then. This particular work (the first fascicle had only been published) was withdrawn, and largely destroyed, by Brotero to be republished in 1816-27. In this later version Hippia stolonifera appears on p. 79, tab. 73, f. II & III.

Gymnostyles stolonifera (Brot.) Juss. ex Brot., Phytogr. Lusit. Select.: 79 (1816), pro syn.

Gymnostyles lusitanica Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 500 (1826), nom. illegit. based on Hippia stolonifera Brot.

Soliva lusitanica (Spreng.) Less., Syn. Gen. Comp. : 268 (1832).

Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Loudon, Hort. Brit.: 364 (1830), comb. superfl.

Gymnostyles stolonifera (Brot.) Juss. ex DC., Prodr. 6: 143 (1838), nom. nud. pro syn.

Gymnostyles stolonifera (Brot.) Juss. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 713 (1840), nom. nud. pro syn.

Soliva aphanes Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(4): 51 (1856). Type: [Peru:] [Lechler] 1782 [Incolis: Masteursa. In ipsa urbe Ozangaro. Im.] Holotype: ?P.

Soliva urbica Phil., Linnaea 29: 7 (1857). Type/s: [Chile:] Frequens in plateis, domnum areis Hfen (!), rarius in hortis urbis Santiago. Note: The name is applied to this entity on p. 7, although the beginning of the description is on p. 6. This name is not mentioned by Pizarro (1960: 163), and the location of any type material is unknown.

Gymnostyles stolonifera (Brot.) Tutin, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70(1): 18 (1975), comb. superfl.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Chile, Peru (apparently introduced), Uruguay, USA. Also known from France, Portugal, Madeira and Spain (Canary Islands).

Note: Several references incorrectly provide the basionym authors abbreviation as í¸‰í˛‘Broth. which is for Brotherus (18491929!). There would appear to be an element of confusion as to what should be included within the synonymy of this taxon (Cabrera, 1949; Ariza Espinar, 1997; etc., etc.). Cabrera (1949: 126) was clear in his key how the taxa could be distinguished. However, examination of the fruiting material of the type of S. acaulis would suggest that this actually has caducous hairs, since most of the heads are obviously pubescent and only the outer achenes appear to have lost their hairs; the achenes do not look conspicuously 2-spined, rather shouldered, suggesting, as some authors have, that this belongs under the synonymy of S. anthemifolia (Juss.) R. Br. ex Less. This might well be true for Jussieus concept of Gymnostyles nasturtiifolia. Soliva aphanes, contrary to Cabreras indication of the name being nom. nud. (Cabrera, 1949: 51, p. 54 cited only the collection!), was provided with clear diagnostic characters.

Traditionally, S. stolonifera would be recognized by a glabrous achene apex with two divergent spines.The following synonyms have been removed from the traditional synonymy of S. stolonifera since all possess long hairs on the achene apex, a feature amply illustrated in Jussieus plate:

Gymnostyles nasturtiifolia Juss., Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 4: 262, tab. 61, f. 2 (1804). [Type: Ex Bonari. Car. ex sicc in herb. Commers. Holotype: P.] Note: Jussieu (1804) described the genus Gymnostyles and in it placed three species. The accompanying plate, Pl. 61, shows G. nasturtiifolia in fig. 2, but clearly showing achenes with a long-pilose apex. I would argue that the name could be cited as nom. illegit. pro Hippia minuta L.f. (cited in synonymy) even though in the present checklist it is clear that Hippia minuta is a synonym of Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera, although the figures in Jussieu (1804) do not agree with the Mutis material at all.

Soliva nasturtiifolia (Juss.) DC., Prodr. 6: 142 (1838).

Soliva acaulis [sub araulis !] Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3: 326 (1841). Type: Buenos Ayres. Tweedie. Holotype: K; isotype: K.

Soliva anthemifolia (Juss.) R.Br. ex Less. var. acaulis (Hook. & Arn.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 296 (1884). Note: Bakers combination was actually published as Soliva anthemidifolia R.Br.

Soliva urbica Phil., Linnaea 29: 7 (1857) = Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet