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Simsia Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 478 (1807), non Simsia R.Br. (1810) [PROTEACEAE] (= Stirlingia Endl.)

Armania Bert. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 576 (1836). Type: Armania fruticulosa (Spreng.) Bert. ex DC. = Simsia fruticulosa (Spreng.) S. F. Blake

Barrattia A. Gray & Engelm. ex A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 1: 48 (Dec. 1846 or Jan 1847). Type: Barrattia calva A. Gray & Engelm. ex A. Gray = Simsia calva (A. Gray & Engelm. ex A. Gray) A. Gray

Encelia Adans. sect. Simsia (Pers.) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 656 (1873).

Lectotype (designated by Robinson & Brettell, 1972: 364): Coreopsis amplexicaulis Cav. = Simsia amplexicaulis (Cav.) Pers.


Blake, S. F. (1913). A revision of Encelia and some related genera. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 49: 346396.

Robinson, H. (2006). Simsia. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera MZ. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 103108.

Robinson, H. & R. D. Brettell. (1972). Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). II. A survey of the Mexican and Central American species of Simsia. Phytoligia 24(5): 361377.

Spooner, D. M. (1990). Revision of Simsia (Compositae-Heliantheae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 30: 190.

Simsia dombeyana DC., Prodr. 5: 578 (1836). Type: in Amer. austr. verisim. in Peruvi legit Dombey [12]. ... (v.s. comm. Mus. reg. Par.). Holotype: P; isotype: B, G-DC, MPU, P, US (fragment, but s.n.).

*Encelia hirsuta Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 145 (1898). Type: Argentina: Dique bei Cordoba und westliche Pampas 34. Ausserdem gesehen im Berl. bot. Museum von Ascochinga in Sierra de Cordoba (Lorentz), auch aus Peru (Dombey) eine seltenere Form mit wenigen Strahlblten = f. radiata, und von Charthagena de Columbia (Billberg.). Syntypes: B. Note: With the exception of the Dombey collection (see following forma) the remaining collections are considered syntypes. According to Wetter & Zanoni (1985: 330) there are two sheets of the Kuntze collection in NY, cited as Argentina. Dique bei C rdoba und westliche Pampas, 34, Dec 1891, Kuntze s.n. (2 sheets). Lectotype (selected by Spooner, 1990: 59): US (701505); isolectotypes: GH (fragment), NY 2, US (701506).

Encelia hirsuta Kuntze f. radiata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 145 (1898). Types: ... auch aus Peru (Dombey) eine seltenere Form mit wenigen Strahlblten = f. radiata, ... Holotype: B; isotypes: G-DC, MPU, P, US (fragment of P material, but s.n.). Note: Robinson (2006: 105) noted this collection as Dombey 12, the type of de Candolleá¸.í˛'s name, yet apparently cited differing isotypes G-DC, GH, MO, NY, TEX, P, frag. US., having previously noted photographs of the holotype in CM, GH, TEX, and of the isotype in GH, MO, NY, TEX.

Simsia hirsuta (Kuntze) S. F. Blake, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 49: 389 (1913).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Tarija), Brazil, Ecuador, Peru.

Simsia foetida (Cav.) S. F. Blake var. panamensis (H. Rob. & Brettell) Spooner, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 30: 72 (1990).

Simsia panamensis H. Rob. & Brettell, Phytologia 24(5): 372 (1972). Type: PANAMA: Panama: Bella Vista, Sirvulaca, brushy field; herb 4-8 ft., abundant, rays yellow, Nov. 28, 1923, Standley 25386. Holotype: US.

Panama, Venezuela, ?Bolivia (Santa Cruz, Tarija).

Note: According to Spooner (1990: 73) the Bolivian material may well represent a new taxon but since material was limited he preferred to recognize it as the variety of S. foetida, although differing in some characters. The following two collections were cited by Spooner: Santa Cruz: between Charagua & Izozog, Crdenas 2666 (US).Tarija: Fort n Crevaux, Fries 1645 (US).