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References currently represented within the MPNS Resource

A list of medicinal plant references that are indexed in the Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) Resource, organised by region.

The MPNS Resource is built by collecting plant names from literature on medicinal plants, this includes:

  • pharmacopoeias
  • monographs
  • ethnobotanical surveys and regional works

All references are listed below, organised into geographic regions based on countries of focus or intended use and according to the United Nations geoscheme. Our selection of references has been guided by three main aims:

  1. To cover references of regulatory importance, for example pharmacopoeias and the EMA community herbal monographs.
  2. To cover references that reflect the most commonly traded medicinal plants.
  3. To be global in scope.

The MPNS Resource is currently at Version 7.0, containing a total of 143 references, new additions to this version are indicated by '[V7]' at the end of a citation.

See 'The MPNS Resource' page for further details

We are adding more references which will be included in the next release of the portal. Please contact us if you know of additional references which you feel should be included: mpns@kew.org.


Africa

  • Arnold, T.H., Prentice, C.A., Hawker, L.C., Snyman, E.E., Tomalin, M., Crouch, N.R. & Pottas-Bircher, C. (2002). Medicinal and Magical Plants of Southern Africa: An Annotated Checklist. Strelitzia. 13: 1-203.
  • Boily, Y. & Van Puyvelde, L. (1986). Screening of Medicinal Plants of Rwanda (Central Africa) for Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 16 (1): 1-13.
  • Boudjelal, A. et al. (2013). Herbalists and Wild Medicinal Plants in M'Sila (North Algeria): An Ethnopharmacological Survey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 148 (2): 395-402.
  • Brendler, T., Eloff, J.N., Gurib-Fakim, A. & Phillips, L.D. (ed.) (2010). African Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Graphic Press, Mauritius.
  • Brink, M. & Achigan-Dako, E.G. (ed.) (2009). Obetia radula (Baker) B.D.Jacks. [Internet Record from PROTA4U]. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Burkill, H.M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Vol. 3. Families J-L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Burkill, H.M. (1997). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Vol. 4. Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Busia, K. (ed.) (2007). Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Science and Technology Policy Research Institute, Accra.
  • Gurib-Fakim, A. & Brendler, T. (2004). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Indian Ocean Islands: Madagascar, Cormoros, Seychelles and Mascarenes. Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart.
  • Iwu, M.M. (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Oliver-Bever, O. (1983). Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa II: Plants Acting on the Nervous System. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 7 (1): 1-93.
  • Olowokudejo, J.D. et al. (2008). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Herbal Markets and Medicinal Plants in Lagos State of Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 12: 851-65. 2008.
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (2015). Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa Database (viewed 13/11/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. [V7]
  • Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (eds.) (2008). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) 11 (1): Medicinal plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, CTA PROTRA, Wageningen.
  • Wageningen University (ed.) (2015). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) (viewed 16/08/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). Wageningen University. [V7]
  • Williams, V.L., Victor, J.E., & Crouch, N.R. (2013). Red Listed Medicinal Plants of South Africa: Status, Trends, and Assessment Challenges. South African Journal of Botany 86: 23-35.
  • Wyk, B.E. van (2015). A Review of Commercially Important African Medicinal Plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 176: 118-134.

Southern Asia

  • Anon. (2006). Monograph on Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. Vol. 1. Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu.
  • Anon. (2009). Monograph on Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. Vol. 2. Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu.
  • Anon. (1999-2011). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I. Vol. 1-7 (1st edn). Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.
  • Anon. (2007-2008). The Unani Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. 1-5. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.
  • Jayatissa, L.P., & Samarasuriya, K. (2016). Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants of Sri Lanka (viewed October 2016). University of Ruhuna and Barberyn Ayurveda Resorts. [V7]
  • Manandhar, N.P. (2002). Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Mosaddegha, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A., Esmaeili, S. (2012). Ethnobotanical Survey of Herbal Remedies Traditionally Used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad Province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 141 (1): 80-95. [V7]
  • Navchoo, I.A. & Buth, G.M. (1992). Ethnobotany of Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir State. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. Additional Series 10: 251-258.
  • Rao, A.N. (2004). Medicinal Orchid Wealth of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Medicinal Plants of Conservation Concern (Newsletter of ENVIS Node, Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore) 1(2): 1-5.
  • Siddha Pharmacopoeia Committee (2008). The Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. 1. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, s.loc.
  • Sundaraghavan, R.S. & Singh, N.P. (1984). An Inventory of Endemic and Vulnerable Species of Western India Deserving Conservation. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 5 (1): 153-164.
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. [V7]
  • Ved, D.K. & Goraya, G.S. (2008). Demand and Supply of Medicinal Plants in India. FRLHT, Bangalore.

Eastern Asia

  • Anon. (2007). Korean Pharmacopoeia (9th edn). Korea Food and Drug Administration, s.loc.
  • Anon. (s.dat.). Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. Vols. 1-6 (viewed: 01/09/2014).
  • Anon. (2002). The Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia, English edition (8th edn). Korea Food and Drug Administration, s.loc.
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2005). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2005. People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing.
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2010). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010. People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing.
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2015). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015, Chinese edition. China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing.
  • Committee of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (ed.) (2006). The Japanese Pharmacopoeia (15th edn), English edition (JP XV). Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Tokyo.
  • MHLW (2012). Japanese Pharmacopoeia (16th edn), English edition (JP XVI). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), s.loc.
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. [V7]
  • WHO (1997). Medicinal Plants in China: A Selection of 150 Commonly Used Species (WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 2). World Health Organization, Manila.
  • Wu, J.-N. (2005). An Illustrated Chinese Materia Medica. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Zheng, X.L. et al. (2013). Ethnobotanical Study on Medicinal Plants around Limu Mountains of Hainan Island, China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 148 (3): 964-974.

South-Eastern Asia

  • Caniago, I. & Siebert, S.F. (1998). Medicinal Plant Ecology, Knowledge and Conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Economic Botany. 52 (3): 229-250.
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (1999). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (2009). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (2013). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Padua, L.S. de, Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds.) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (1)).
  • Rahayu, S.S.B. (2003). Rafflesia R.Br. In: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3: 342-344. Backhuys, Leiden (Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12 (3)).
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. [V7]
  • Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van & Bunyapraphatsara, N.(eds.) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (2)).
  • WHO (1990). Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 3). World Health Organization, Manila.

Western Asia

  • Al-Qura'n, S. (2009). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Wild Medicinal Plants in Showbak, Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 123: 45-50.
  • Fleurentin, J. & Pelt, J. (1982). Repertory of Drugs and Medicinal Plants of Yemen. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 6 (1): 85-108.
  • Health Authority - Abu Dhabi (ed.) (2005). Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants of UAE. Vol. 1. Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine (ZCHRTM), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
  • Lange, D. (1998). Europe's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic International, Cambridge, UK. [includes Turkey]
  • Lev, E. & Amar, Z. (2000). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in Israel at the End of the 20th Century. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 72 (1): 191-205. [V7]
  • Lev, E. & Amar, Z. (2002). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in the Kingdom of Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 82 (2): 131-145.
  • Mati, E. & Boer, H. de (2011). Ethnobotany and Trade of Medicinal Plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 133 (2): 490-510. [V7]
  • Oran, S.A. & Ali-Eisawi, D.M. (1998). Check-list of Medicinal Plants in Jordan. Dirasat. Medical and Biological Sciences, Jordan. 25: 84-112.
  • Özhatay, N., Koyuncu, M., Atay, S. & Byfield, A. (1997). The Wild Medicinal Plant Trade in Turkey. Doǧal Hayatı Koruma Derneǧi, Istanbul.
  • Said, O., Khalil, K., Fulder, S. & Azaizeh, H. (2002). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Herbs in Israel, the Golan Heights and the West Bank Region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 83: 251-265.
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. [V7]

Central Asia

  • Eisenman, S.W., Zaurov, D.E. & Struwe, L. (ed.) (2013). Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Springer, New York.
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. [V7]

Oceana

  • Barr, A., Chapman, J., Smith, N., Wightman, G. et al. (eds.) (1993). Traditional Aboriginal Medicines in the Northern Territory of Australia by Aboriginal Communities of the Northern Territory. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin. [V7]
  • Cambie, R.C. & Ash, J. (1994). Fijian Medicinal Plants. CSIRO, s.loc. [V7]
  • Packer, J. et al. (2012). An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by the Yaegl Aboriginal Community in Northern New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 139 (1): 244-255.
  • Padua, L.S. de, Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (ed.) (1999). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (1): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
  • Therapeutic Goods Administration (ed.) (2007). Substances that May be Used in Listed Medicines in Australia. Therapeutic Goods Administration, Symonston.
  • Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (ed.) (1999). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (2): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Europe

  • Anon. (2000). Les Plantes Médicinales de la Pharmacopée (Liste A). Société Française d'Ethnopharmacologie, s.loc.
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission (2008). British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4. The Stationery Office, London.
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission (2011). British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4. The Stationery Office, London.
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission (2014). British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4. The Stationery Office, London.
  • EDQM (ed.) (2007). European Pharmacopoeia. Vol. 1-2 (6th edn). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM). Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
  • EDQM (ed.) (2012). European Pharmacopoeia. (7.8 edn). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM). Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
  • EMA (2005-2013). Community Herbal Monographs (Selected Final Versions Adopted Between 2006 and 2014). European Medicines Agency (EMA)/The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC).
  • Grey-Wilson, C. (1995). Les Fleurs Sauvages: Le Guide Visuel de Plus de 500 Especes de Fleurs d'Europe Temperee. Bordas, Paris.*
  • Hänsel, R. et al. (1992-1998). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis. Vol. 1-5 (5th edn). s.loc.
  • Kommission E (1984-1994). Liste der Monographien der E-Kommission: Approved Status (viewed 01/03/2016). E-Kommission. [V7]
  • Kommission E (1984-1994). Liste der Monographien der E-Kommission: Unapproved Status (viewed 01/03/2016). E-Kommission. [V7]
  • Lange, D. (1998). Europe's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic International, Cambridge, UK.
  • Morales, R., Macia, M.J., Dorda, E. & Garcia Villaraco, A. (1996). Archivos de Flora Iberica, Numero 7, Nombres vulgares, 2. Real Jardin Botanico CSIC, Madrid.*
  • Rigat, M., Bonet, M.Á., Garcia, S., Garnatje, T. & Vallès, J. (2007). Studies on Pharmaceutical Ethnobotany in the High River Ter Valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 113 (2): 267-277.
  • Shikov et al. (2014). Medicinal Plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia: Their History and Applications. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 154 (3): 481-536.
  • Swissmedic (ed.) (2006). Pharmacopoeia Helvetica: Deutsche Ausgabe (10th edn). Swissmedic, Bern.
  • Zlatković, B.K. et al. (2014). Traditional Use of the Native Medicinal Plant Resource of Mt. Rtanj (Eastern Serbia): Ethnobotanical Evaluation and Comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 151.1 (2014): 704-713.

Northern America

  • HPUS (2009). HPUS Online Database (viewed: 26/10/2009). Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS).
  • McGuffin, M., Kartesz, J.T., Leung, A.Y. & Tucker, A.O. (2000). Herbs of Commerce (2nd edn). AHPA, Silver Spring, USA.
  • Moerman, D.E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • U.S. FDA (2016). United States Food and Drug Administration Substance Registration System (viewed 2016). [V7]
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2008). Food Chemicals Codex (6th edn). U.S. Pharmacopeia, s.loc.
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2008). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 32. The National Formulary NF 27. 2009, Vol. 1-3. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville.
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2013). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 37. The National Formulary NF 32. 2014. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville.
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2016). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 39. The National Formulary NF 34. 2016. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville. [V7]
  • Weiner, M.A. (1972). Earth Medicine - Earth Food. Plant Remedies, Drugs and Natural Foods of the North American Indians. Collier, New York.

Central America

  • Alcorn, J.B. (1984). Huastec Mayan Ethnobotany. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
  • Barrett, B. (1994). Medicinal Plants of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. Economic Botany. 48 (1): 8-20.
  • Coe, F.G. & Anderson, G.J. (1996). Screening of Medicinal Plants Used by the Garífuna of Eastern Nicaragua for Bioactive Compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 53: 29-50.
  • Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (ed.) (2001). Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Secretaria de Salud, México D.F.
  • Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (ed.) (2013). Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (2nd edn). Secretaria de Salud, México D.F.
  • Duke, J.A. (2009). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Giovannini, P., Howes, M.J.R. & Edwards, S.E. (2016). Data on Medicinal Plants used in Central America to Manage Diabetes and its Sequelae (Skin Conditions, Cardiovascular Disease, Kidney Disease, Urinary Problems and Vision Loss). Data in Brief 7: 1217-1220. [V7]
  • Heinrich, M., Ankli, A., Frei, B., Weimann, C. & Sticher, O. (1998). Medicinal Plants in Mexico: Healers' Consensus and Cultural Importance. Social Science and Medicine. 47 (11): 1859-1871.
  • Martínez, M. (1990). Las Plantas Medicinales de México (6th edn). Botas, Mexico.*

South America

  • Anon. (2009). Annexo III: List of Vegetable Drugs which are Included in the Registry of Long Tradition Phytotherapy Medications (in Agregado VIII Medicamentos Fitoterápicos Proyecto Iname/Anmat). Comité de Armonización de Medicamentos Fitoterápicos, Argentina. [V7]
  • Anon. (s.dat.). Farmacopea Argentina (8th edn). Vol. 3. (viewed: 09/09/2012). Ministerio de Salud, s.loc.
  • ANVISA (2010). Farmacopeia Brasileira (5th edn), 2 Vols. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Brasilia
  • Barboza, G.E., Cantero, J.J. Nuñez, C., Pacciaroni, A. & Ariza Espinar, L. (2009). Medicinal Plants: A General Review and a Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Screening of the Native Argentine Flora. Kurtziana 34 (1-2): 7-365
  • Barrett, B. (1994). Medicinal Plants of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. Economic Botany. 48 (1): 8-20.
  • Brandão, M.G.L., Cosenza, G.P., Assis Moreira, R. & Monte-Mor, R.L.M. (2006). Medicinal Plants and Other Botanical Products from the Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 16 (3): 408-420.
  • Duke, J.A. & Vasquez, R. (1994). Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.*
  • Duke, J.A. (2009). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Fátima Agra, M., França de Freitas, P. & Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2007). Synopsis of the Plants Known as Medicinal and Poisonous in Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 17 (1): 114-140.
  • Fátima Agra, M., Nurit Silva, K., Lima Diniz Basilio, I.J., França de Freitas, P. & Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2008). Survey of Medicinal Plants used in the Region Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 18 (3): 472-508.
  • Giovannini, P. (2015). Medicinal Plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: Ethnobotanical Survey and Comparison with Other Amazonian Pharmacopoeias. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 164 (1): 78-88.
  • Milliken, W. (2015). Plants for Malaria, Plants for Fever (viewed 16/08/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). [V7]Ribeiro Silva, S., Buitron, X., Oliveira, L.H. de & Martins, M.V.M. (2001). Plantas Medicinales de Brasil. Aspectos Generales sobre Legislacion y Comercio. TRAFFIC America del Sur, Quito.
  • Sanz-Biset, J., Campos-de-la-Cruz, J., Epiquién-Rivera, M.A. & Cañigueral, S. (2009). A First Survey on the Medicinal Plants of the Chazuta Valley (Peruvian Amazon). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 122: 333-362.
  • Tene, V. et al. (2007). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 111 (1): 63-81.

Global/General

  • AHPA (2013). Section 5: Commonly Traded CITES-Listed Species in Primer on Importing & Exporting CITES-Listed Species Used in the United States in Dietary Supplements, Traditional Herbal Medicines, and Homeopathic Products (viewed 05/09/2015). American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). [V7]
  • Anon. (1977). Secrets et Vertus des Plantes Mèdicinales. Selection du Reader's Digest.*
  • Anon. (1999). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Anon. (2004). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Anon. (2007). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Anon. (2009). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • Balbachas, A. & Rodriguez, R.H. (1982). Las Plantas Curan, Sexta edicion. Reformation Herald Pub. Association, Blackwood, N.J.*
  • Bartram, T.H. (1995). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Grace Publishers, Christchurch, Dorset.*
  • Bremness, L. (1994). Kräuter Gewürze und Heilpflanzen. Ravensburger.*
  • Bremness, L. (1996). Les Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales: Le Guide Visuel de Plus de 700 Especes Vegetales a Travers Le Monde. Bordas, Paris.*
  • Brinkmann, J. et al. (2009). Medicinal Plants and Extracts Market News Service (MNS). [V7]
  • Desire, O. et al. (2010). Antispasmodic and Antioxidant Activities of Fractions and Bioactive Constituent Davidigenin Isolated from Mascarenhasia arborescens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 130 (2): 320-328. #
  • Erhardt, W. von, Götz, E., Bödeker, N. & Seybold, S.; Coombes, A. (ed.) (2009). The Timber Press Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.*
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1983). Plants and Plant Products of Economic Importance. FAO Terminology Bulletin 25/1. Rome.*
  • ISO (2009). ISO 4720:2009. Essential oils -- Nomenclature (in English and French). (3rd edn, viewed 15/08/2009). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
  • ISO (2009). ISO Catalogue (viewed: 22/01/2009). International Organization for Standardization.
  • Mabberley, D.J. (1996). The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press.
  • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses (3rd edn). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Palmweb (2015). Palms of the World Online (viewed 8/10/2015 for use in  SOTWP 2016).[V7]
  • Penso, G. & Proserpio, G. (1997). Index Plantarum Medicinalium Totius Mundi eorumque Synonymorum (2nd edn). OEMF, Milano.
  • Quattrocchi, U. (2012). World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press, Boca Raton. [V7]
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (2015). Kew Economic Botany Collection - Online Database (viewed 04/12/2015 for use in  SOTWP 2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. [V7]
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. [V7]
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (2015). Useful Plants and Fungi Project Database (viewed 17/11/2015 for use in  SOTWP 2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. [V7]
  • Schilcher, H. (2008). Kleines Heilkräuter-Lexikon, 5 Aufl. Walter Hädecke Verlag, Weil der Stadt.*
  • Spohn, M., Golte-Bechtle, M. & Spohn, R. (2008). Was Blüht Denn Da? Sicher Nach Farbe Bestimmen. Franckh Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart.*
  • Suozzi, R.M. (1995). Dizionario Delle Erbe Medicinali: Oltre Duecentocinquanta Specie Vegetali Esaminate Nei Loro Effetti Curativi e Nella Loro Utilizzazione Practica. Newton Compton Editori, Rome.*
  • Svendsen, M. et al. (2015). The Effect of Kiwifruit Consumption on Blood Pressure in Subjects with Moderately Elevated Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Controlled Study. Blood Press. 24(1):48-54. #
  • Wiersema, J.H. & León, B. (1999). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Retrieved as GRIN report on 17/03/2015 using query "Medizin = 'Alle Nutzungen'".
  • Wiersema, J.H. & León, B. (2013). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference (2nd edn). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida; London.*
  • Wyk, B.E. van & Wink, M. (2004). Medicinal Plants of the World: An Illustrated Scientific Guide to Important Medicinal Plants and their Uses. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.  

Please note:

  • An asterisk (*) indicates data kindly provided to us by Amparo Rodriguez.
  • A hashtag (#) indicates a reference included to cover a specific species.
  • '[V7]' indicates that this reference is a new addition to Version 7 of the MPNS Resource.