GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (1), or arching (1), or leaning (1); 300–787.5–1500 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Lateral branches dendroid. Culm-sheaths without auricles (1), or auriculate (1). Culm-sheath blade linear (1), or ovate (1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (1), or falcate (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or oblong (1). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous. Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (1), or with obscure cross veins (1).

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; clustered at the nodes; in untidy tufts; with glumaceous subtending bracts (1), or spathaceous subtending bracts (1); with axillary buds at base of spikelet; leafless between clusters.

Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled (1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets, or 4–5 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 12–40.5–75 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite; glabrous (1), or sparsely hairy (1).

GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two (1); persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume surface without pits (1/1). Upper glume ovate; chartaceous; without keels; 5–7 -veined (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (1), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex acute; mucronate.

FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; chartaceous; without keel; wingless; 9–11 -veined (1/1). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (1), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex acute; mucronate. Palea chartaceous; 7–10 -veined (1). Palea keels ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1).

FLOWER Lodicules 3; glabrous (1), or ciliate (1). Anthers 6. Stigmas 2, or 3 (1). Ovary with a steeple-like appendage; glabrous.

FRUIT Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp; ovoid.


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.