GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Culms robust; 100–310–600 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades herbaceous (3), or coriaceous (2); stiff (3), or firm (2).

INFLORESCENCE Bisexual (1), or gynodioecious ("male", in this context, indicating the bisexual state) (4). Inflorescence a panicle.

Panicle open.

Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (2), or 3 fertile florets, or 4 fertile florets (3), or 5–7 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 10–23.66–50 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite. Floret callus evident; pubescent.

GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; parallel to lemmas (2), or gaping (3). Lower glume linear; 1 length of upper glume; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface without pits; glabrous (4), or hirsute (1). Lower glume apex setaceously attenuate. Upper glume linear; 1.5–2.75–5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous (4), or hirsute (1). Upper glume apex setaceously attenuate.

FLORETS Fertile florets bisexual (1), or female (4). Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel; wingless; 3 -veined. Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; hirsute (1), or plumose (4). Lemma apex entire (1), or lobed; 2 -fid; attenuate (4/4); muticous (1), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4). Principal lemma awn apical (1/4), or from a sinus (4/4). Palea hyaline; 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate (3), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Lodicules 2; fleshy; glabrous (1), or ciliate (4). Anthers 3.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform (1/1). Embryo 0.3 length of caryopsis.

MALE Male inflorescence similar to female (4/4); a panicle (4/4). Male spikelets resembling female (4/4).


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.