GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short. Culms erect (2/2); 26.6–49.03–100 cm long; without nodal roots. Culm-nodes constricted (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (1), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (2), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or triangular (1). Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins.

INFLORESCENCE Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Synflorescence on a specialized culm bearing a single leaf-blade, or on a separate leafless culm. Inflorescence a panicle.

Panicle open (2), or spiciform (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (1), or whorled at lower nodes (2).

Sexes segregated; on unisexual branches (1), or bisexual branches (2); with male below. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs (2). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear (1/1); tip pyriform (1/1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 1–7.216–12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.

GLUMES Glumes deciduous; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma, or similar to fertile lemma in texture (2). Lower glume elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate; 1 length of upper glume; membranous (1/1); without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface convex (2), or concave (1); without pits; glabrous (1), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex acuminate; muticous (1), or awned (2). Upper glume elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate; 1.1–1.183–1.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1/1); with cartilaginous margins; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume surface glabrous (1), or puberulous (1), or pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate (1), or attenuate (2).

FLORETS Fertile florets bisexual (2), or female (1). Fertile lemma elliptic, or oblong (1), or ovate (1); herbaceous (2), or indurate; without keel; wingless; 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (1), or punctate (1), or pitted (1); unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma margins covering most of palea; eciliate (2), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex acute (1/1). Palea 0.9–1.016–1.1 length of lemma; membranous (2), or indurate; 2 -veined (2/2); without keels.

FLOWER Lodicules 3. Anthers 3 (1/1). Stigmas 2 (2/2).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); pitted (1/1). Hilum linear.

MALE Male spikelets distinct from female; linear (2), or lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (2), or awned (2).


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.