GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms leaning, or scandent; 40–540–1300 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement several (2), or many (1); with 1 branch dominant (2/2). Culm-sheaths auriculate (2/2). Culm-sheath blade lanceolate (1/2), or narrowly ovate (1/2), or ovate (1/2). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (2), or falcate (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate.

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; clustered at the nodes; in stellate clusters (1), or untidy tufts (2); with glumaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; leafy between clusters (1), or leafless between clusters (1), or leafless between branches (2).

Fertile spikelets sessile.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 3–4 fertile florets (1), or 5 fertile florets (2); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (1), or ovate (2); laterally compressed; 6–12.48–18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite.

GLUMES Glumes two (2), or several (1); persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 0.7–0.75–0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 3 -veined (1/1). Lower glume surface without pits; glabrous (2), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (2). Upper glume ovate; chartaceous (2/2). Upper glume surface glabrous (2), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex acute (2/2).

FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; chartaceous; without keel; wingless; 3 -veined (1), or 5–7 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (1). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (2). Palea 6 -veined (1/2), or 8 -veined (1/2). Palea keels wingless (1), or winged (2); eciliate (1), or ciliolate (2). Palea surface pubescent (2), or pilose (1).

FLOWER Lodicules absent. Anthers 6. Stigmas 3. Ovary unappendaged (2), or umbonate (1); glabrous (1/1).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); orbicular (1/1); isodiametric (1/1).


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.