GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons absent (3), or present (1). Culms erect; reed-like; 100–406.2–1000 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; linear (3), or lanceolate (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle.

Panicle open.

Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3–4 fertile florets, or 5–11 fertile florets (3); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7–11.75–18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite. Floret callus elongated; bearded.

GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.5–0.625–1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3–5 -veined. Lower glume surface without pits. Lower glume apex acute (3), or cuspidate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.4–0.5875–0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3–5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute (3), or cuspidate (1); muticous, or mucronate (1).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3); 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 3–7 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; without keel; wingless; 1–3 -veined. Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (1), or scaberulous (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Lodicules 2. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous (3/3).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum elliptic (3/3).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.