GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 300–1000 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many; in an irregular line; with 1 branch dominant. Culm-sheaths without auricles. Culm-sheath blade linear. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate. Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross veins.

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; stellate, or clustered at the nodes; in stellate clusters; with glumaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; leafless between clusters.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1–2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed, or subterete; 15–40 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes definite.

GLUMES Glumes several; lower persistent, upper deciduous; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong, or ovate; 0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 17–30 -veined. Lower glume surface without pits; hispidulous. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume lanceolate; coriaceous; without keels; 26–32 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume surface hispid. Upper glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned.

FLORETS Fertile lemma elliptic; coriaceous; without keel; wingless; 26–32 -veined. Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; hispid. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn pungent. Palea tightly convolute around flower; scarious; 16–19 -veined; without keels, or 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels.

FLOWER Lodicules absent. Anthers 6. Stigmas 3; papillose. Ovary with a steeple-like appendage; glabrous.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.