GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 60–200–350 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate, or oblong, or ovate (1); coriaceous; stiff. Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1), or conspicuous (1).

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; paniculate; with glumaceous subtending bracts (1), or spathaceous subtending bracts (1), or foliaceous subtending bracts (1); without axillary buds at base of spikelet.

Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or ovate (1); laterally compressed, or subterete (1); 5–6–8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.

GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.6–0.7–0.8 length of upper glume; scarious; without keels; 7–8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined. Lower glume surface without pits. Lower glume apex truncate (1), or obtuse (1), or acuminate (1), or laterally pinched (1). Upper glume elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); scarious; without keels; 7–9 -veined (1), or 11 -veined (1). Upper glume apex truncate (1), or obtuse (1), or acuminate (1).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous; without keel; wingless; 5–7 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (1). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma apex obtuse, or acute (1); cucullate. Palea 1 length of lemma; coriaceous; 4–5 -veined (1), or 6 -veined. Palea keels approximate.

FLOWER Lodicules 3; glabrous (1), or ciliate (1). Anthers 6. Stigmas 3. Ovary umbonate; glabrous.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong (1/1), or ovoid (1/1).


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.