GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or elongated (2). Culms erect, or decumbent (2); 50–85.83–136 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or oblong (1).

INFLORESCENCE Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (1), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); enclosed.

Racemes single; multilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; terminating in a spikelet (1), or barren extension (2).

Sexes mixed (1), or segregated (2); on bisexual branches (2/2); with male below (2/2). Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets pedicelled; 5 in a cluster. Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets; with pedicels forming a long tube. Pedicels fused to each other; linear; tip rectangular (1/1).

STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets absent (2), or rudimentary (1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2/2), or oblong (2/2); laterally compressed; 12–13.75–15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.

GLUMES Glumes thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); hyaline (1/2), or membranous (2/2); 1–2 -veined (2/2), or 3 -veined (1/2). Lower glume surface without pits; glabrous, or puberulous (2). Lower glume apex acute (1/1). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (2).

FLORETS Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate (2/2), or oblong (2/2); cartilaginous (2/2); wingless; 10–11 -veined (1/2), or 12 -veined (2/2), or 13–16 -veined (1/2). Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous (1); unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma apex acuminate (2/2). Palea membranous (2), or cartilaginous (1); 8 -veined (1/1).

FLOWER Lodicules 3 (1/1). Anthers 2. Stigmas 2 (1/1).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); oblong (2/2). Hilum linear (2/2); 1 length of caryopsis.

MALE Male spikelets elliptic (1/2), or oblong (2/2). Male spikelet glumes 1 (2/2).

CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes present; underground.


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.