GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; leptomorph. Culms erect; 50–287.5–800 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes similar in length; terete (1), or channelled (1). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement three, or several (1); with subequal branches; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths persistent (1), or tardily deciduous (1), or deciduous (1); without auricles. Culm-sheath blade lanceolate (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate; herbaceous (1), or chartaceous (1). Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence comprising only a few spikelets.

Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 5 fertile florets (1), or 6–8 fertile florets, or 9–12 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 30–48.75–70 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite; glabrous (1), or pubescent (1).

GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two, or several (1); persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.3–0.5–0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 5–7 -veined (1/1). Lower glume surface without pits. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7–9 -veined (1/1). Upper glume apex acute.

FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; chartaceous; without keel; wingless; 7–9 -veined (1/1). Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (1), or puberulous (1). Lemma apex attenuate; muticous, or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels smooth (1), or scabrous (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Lodicules 3. Anthers 3. Stigmas 3.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; apex unappendaged (1), or rostrate (1).


Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.