GlossaryNeotropikey gratefully acknowledges William Hawthorne for permission to use a modified version of his 'plant characteristics', developed during a DFID-sponsored Field Guide project, as a starting point for the glossary.
Aaxis, usually the lower surface. Petiole] -- The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit. Habit] -- Stemless, or with no visible stem. stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering. indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, e.g. Asteraceae, Rosaceae; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel. venation] -- With two or more primary or strongly developed secondary veins diverging at or above the base of the blade and running in convergent arches toward the apex over some or all of the blade length, the arches not basally curved. venation] -- With three or more primary veins diverging radially from a single point at or above the base of the blade and running toward the margin, reaching it or not. Symmetry] -- Of flowers, radially symmetrical; symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower, like a star. Apex of leaf blade] -- Apex of leaf tapering very gradually at tip; long acuminate implies this apical section is particularly prolonged, as in drip tip. Apex of leaf blade] -- Apex of leaf pointed, with more or less straight sides. axis, normally the upper surface. Tree bole] -- Shoot or root arising on stem, bole or boughs. Woody stems (regardless of habit)] -- Aerial roots are roots above the ground. They are almost always adventitious. They are found in plant groups such as orchids, tropical coastal swamp trees such as mangroves. Tepal] -- The arrangement of floral parts in the bud, e.g. imbricate. Leaf arrangement] -- Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different heights on the axis, when used to describe leaf insertion, often vague and including the more precise spiral and distichous. leaf base, clasping the stem. Venation] -- Forming a network; usually applied to the veins in a leaf, or to fissures and ridges in bark. Flower parts] -- Male parts of the flower. Flower parts] -- A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium. Flower]/[Androecium (male parts)] -- A stalk supporting a group of stamens. seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary. Habit] -- A plant that completes its life cycle within a year. Stamen] -- Section of the male part of the flower (Stamen) which contains pollen. Flower]/[Petal] -- Without petals.
Apex:[Outline of leaf blade] -- End part, or tip, furthest away from main axis of plant. Apex of leaf blade] -- With a short point: i.e. leaves, petals etc. ending abruptly in a short, flexible point. Venation] -- Any small, discretely bounded area. in leaf venation, the space bounded by the finest veins on the lamina, adj. areolate.
Aril:[Fruit Details] -- Thin fleshy covering of whole or part of seed inside the fruit (inside pericarp); usually brightly coloured. Apex of leaf blade] -- Like apiculate, but strictly, the point finer and longer (strictly with length more than 3 times width), and straight and stiff. Petiole] -- (Petiole) swollen or deformed at a point, with a bendable joint (like an elbow, which makes an arm articulate). Venation] -- Of lateral nerves, arching upwards, towards the apex. blade shape] -- Not symmetrical in any sense (neither actinomorphic nor zygomorphic). attachment of leaf, flower, fruit to the stem, e.g. sessile, subsessile, petiole (leaf), pedicellate (flower). Leaf base] -- With ear-like lobe, usually at base of leaf or leaflet; very deeply cordate.
Awn:[Fruit details] -- A bristle-like appendage, as on the apical part of some stipules.
Axil:[Position] -- The corner where a structure meets the axis from which it branches (e.g. the armpit is in the axil of a human arm); the nerve axil. axis of the ovary. axil. e.g. axillary bud as distinct from apical bud.
Axis:Main stem or channel from which branches or other parts arise (e.g. twig, bough).
BIndehiscent] -- Juicy and very succulent. reflexed bristles or processes. barbed.
Bark:[Woody stems (regardless of habit)] -- Outer covering of woody plants that includes all living and dead tissues external to the cambium. basal nerve is a nerve arising at (or very close to) the base of lamina. tuft, or fringe. When the hairs are in a conspicuous single file or narrow line, then ciliate is used. Indehiscent] -- Fleshy fruit with (1-) several seeds immersed in soft flesh, but seeds without a stony outer layer, e.g. tomato (see drupe). rounded teeth on larger rounded teeth. stipule) With two tooth like lobes. Habit] -- Plant that completes its life cycle in two years, often flowering and fruiting in the second year. Ovary] -- An ovary, or fruit, having two locules (or cavities). Divided nearly to the base into two parts. divided. Bipinnate, tripinnate or mixed order] -- Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules. lamina).
Bole:[Tree] -- Part of tree between the lowest boughs of the crown and the highest part of the buttress. Tree] -- Main massive branches of a crown of a large tree. Inflorescence] -- (Usually a small) leaf-like or stipule-like structure at nodes of inflorescence (see bracteole). Inflorescence] -- Small type of bract on an inflorescence, but smaller than any normal bracts on the same inflorescence and nearer to the individual. Stem] -- A small branch or stem; if thin and (becoming) woody, then = twig . venation] -- With a single primary vein, the secondary veins not terminating at the margin but joined together in a series of prominent upward arches or marginal loops on each side of the primary vein.
Bud:[Stem] -- An immature shoot sometimes covered with tough scales or stipules, or an undeveloped flower, often protected by the calyx or bracts. Stem] -- Tough scales generally 0.5mm to a few cm long, enclosing a bud before it expands. Bud scales may be specialised stipules.
Bulb:[Stem] -- A swollen, usually underground organ involving a compacted stem and enveloped in succulent or scale-like leaves or leaf bases. Stem] -- A small bulb or bulb-like structure arising above ground, from leaf axils, in effect an axillary bud that falls off. veins on the upper surface and therefore also with marked depressions. tree extending from lateral surface roots to trunk.
CStipule) falling soon, early deciduous. Caducous stipules are typically visible only on the apical bud. Perianth] -- Collective term for the sepals, particularly when they are united to form a tube. venation] -- With several primary veins or their branches diverging at or close to a single point and running in strongly developed, basally recurved arches which converge toward the apex, reaching it or not. Inflorescence types] -- Head-like; of an inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated into a globose, dense cluster; of a stigma or a gland. Inflorescence types] -- An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or domed receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae. dehiscent fruit which splits open along several lines or pores to release seeds, derived from two or more united carpels. Flower]/[Gynoecium] -- Female part, around centre of flowers, including stigma, style and ovary developing into a fruit. In some species, several separate. Inflorescence types] -- A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense hanging and flexible. Apex of leaf blade] -- Having a long tail-like tip or appendage. Inflorescence types] -- Flowers and fruits arriving from bole (larger boughs as well). Venation] -- (Nerve etc.) sunk below surface, leaving a rounded channel. petal. Like eyelashes, rather than bearded. Stem] -- Spirally coiled like the developing leaves of ferns. appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up. flexuous. venation] -- With a single primary vein, the secondary veins not terminating at the margin and freely ramified toward it. Node]/[Attachment] -- Partly surrounding the stem. blade shape] -- Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
Claw:[Leaf blade shape] -- The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract. Lamina leaf blade] -- Indentations or incisions cut 1/4-1/2 distance to midrib or midvein. Habit] -- Climbing plants use other plants or rocks and manmade structures for support. Habit] -- see climber. Aestivation] -- Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal , being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others. linear structures like robust, flat hairs, believed to glandular or associated with protecting the apical bud. tuft of hairs, usually apical. Inflorescence] -- Leaves with more than one axis several midribs; with 2 or more leaflets. Inflorescences, when a similar pattern of branching is repeated in distinct subunits. elliptic not round. Attachment] -- Generally, with parts fused, as with sepals in calyx tube; or bases of opposite leaves etc. fused around the stem . Attachment] -- Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united. Attachment] -- Touching at the edges with no gap between. Flower]/[Aestivation] -- Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent. Bark]/[Slash] -- Pattern of curved parallel lines, especially layers of bark when cut, visible in the slash. woody plant is cut near ground. Leaf base] -- Leaf base which curves round towards petiole like the non-pointed end of a heart shape. blade shape] -- Shaped like a cartoon heart.
Cork:[Stem] -- Soft waterproof material (used in wine bottle tops) on the outside layer of some axes; often pale brown or white rather than green.
Corm:[Roots] -- A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base. Flower]/[Perianth] -- Petals as a whole, especially when they are united to form a tube. Flower parts] -- A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower. Inflorescence types] -- A racemose inflorescence in which the pedicels of the lower flowers are longer than those of the flowers above, bringing all flowers to about the same level. Seed] -- The first leaves of an embryo or a seedling, ñ different in appearance from subsequent leaves. 1 in Monocotyledons, usually 2 in Dicotyledons. venation] -- Of pinnate leaf venation in which the secondary veins terminate at the leaf/leaflet margin. obtuse (strictly, rounded teeth cut less than 1/8 way to midrib). crenate (strictly, rounded teeth cut only to 1/16 of distance to midrib). wavy or crinkled. e.g. lettuce leaves are often crispate. Tree] -- System of branches at top of tree supporting leaves. Leaf base wedge-shaped; becoming gradually thinner at base towards petiole. Apex of leaf blade] -- Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid acute point.
Cyme:[Inflorescence types] -- Branched inflorescence without a single main axis, but where each flower ends an axis and subsequent flowers develop from branches. raphide).
DFoliage]/Falling seasonally, e.g. of the leaves, flower, and fruit of mostly woody plant species. Leaf base] -- Extending downwards from the point of insertion, e.g. of a leaf lamina extending downwards to form a flange along the petiole . Leaf arrangement] -- Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other. indehiscent; capsule). Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs. serrate). dentate, with small triangular teeth (cut to 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein). Inflorescence types] -- A cyme with two branches from each node. Compound leaf types] -- Compound leaf with more than three leaflets, all arising from one point at end of petiole (compare palmate). Simple leaf) with lobes diverging like fingers on a hand. bark marked by broad vertical bands associated with outgrowth of bark.
Disc:[Flower parts] -- A fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or on the ovary. Flower]/[Floret] -- Small flowers, of the central discs in the capitulae of Asteraceae. Orbicular with convex faces. blade colour] -- Differently coloured (especially lower) side of leaf (compared to upper side). divided into narrow segments. Laciniate is an extreme case of fine dissection. Leaf arrangement] -- Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem. midrib or midvein. lateral nerves or finer veins. Dentate with small teeth on the larger teeth; (also doubly serrate). Apex of leaf blade] -- (With) tip of leaf abuptly long acuminate, the drip tip tip section itself typically <2mm wide and parallel sided for >5mm. Indehiscent] -- Plum-like, like a drupe, but technically not one, e.g. with stone(s) each containing more than 1 seed. Indehiscent] -- Fruit with a fleshy part surrounding hard, central, 1-seeded 'stone(s)' (e.g. mango, plum). Normally 1-stoned (but sometimes a few). Indehiscent] -- Plum-like, like a drupe, but technically not one, e.g. with stone(s) each containing more than 1 seed.
Eelliptic outline from the side view and circular outline from the end view (like some grapes). blade shape] -- A term used for outlines and plane shapes, with a length:breadth ratio 2.5:1 - 3:2, the widest part at about the middle, the apex and base are more or less pointed. Apex of leaf blade] -- Tip of leaf with a slight notch, but otherwise usually rather obtuse. fruit (pericarp); in a drupe, the stony layer. Seed] -- The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of some types of seed. Flower parts] -- Of a flower, when the sepals, petals and stamens apparently all arise above the ovary. Root climbers or creepers] -- Of the general habit: a plant growing on, but not parasitic on, another plant. Epiphyte] -- See Epiphyte. Habit] -- Upright, directed perpendicular to the surface. lobed margins; appearing gnawed. venation] -- With a single primary vein, the secondary veins curved upward and gradually diminishing distally within the margin and interconnected by a series of cross-veins without forming conspicuous marginal loops. Foliage]/[Tree crown] -- Plant which always bears foliage; i.e. never deciduous. Leaves fall off individually, not all in one season. Bark, outer] -- Of bark, being shed in thin, often papery scales or sheets. fruit wall, usually a skin-like layer. Flower]/[Stamen] -- Protruding stamens, longer than corolla tube. Stem accessories] -- Without stipules. Stem] -- Any liquid or gelatinous or resinous substance flowing from a plant (e.g. from bark slash or glands).
Fblade shape] -- Sickle-shaped; leaflet or Leaf with midrib and edges curved round to one side, like a sickle. Inflorescence types] -- Cluster or bundle, especially, of an Inflorescence without (obvious) stalk, with a dense cluster of flowers arising in one place. Flower arrangement]/[Inflorescence types] -- Clustered, or appearing in bundles. Bark texture] -- With obvious fibres. Fibrous roots refer to a root system with no main axis, typical of monocotyledons. Flower]/[Stamen] -- A thread; particularly, the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther. blade shape] -- Thread-like, slender and elongated, usually easily bent. ciliate). Bark, outer] -- With elongated deep cracks or splits. pith. Lax and weak. stem or hair) long and wavy. Bark, outer] -- Very hard, glass- or stone-like bark of certain Diospyros species. Capitulum] -- Small flowers, esp. of the spikelets of Poaceae and Cyperaceae and the capitulae of Asteraceae. axis; usually receptacle with stamens, carpels and perianth. Foliage]/All foliage unfolding and developing in a (short part of) one season, on trees of rhythmic growth. rounded, regular ascending channels. tree or branch considered as a whole. dehiscent often many-seeded fruit developing from one carpel, splitting along one line (like some pods).
Free:Floral organs: not fused. Free central (placenta), with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary . ovary (and sometimes other floral parts, like the calyx) containing seeds and generally promoting their dispersal.
Gglabrous from a distance, and sometimes is so, but may have minute or scattered hairs close up. blade gland dots, etc.] -- See gland. gland. glands. rounded or coloured or sticky-looking head, borne on a stalk. glaucous . ellipsoid. barbed trichomes usually in tufts. Bark texture] -- (Made of) small particles (0.5mm wide) of similar length to width, in contrast to fibrous, especially used for bark texture. Ecology] -- Occuring together in groups. Bark texture] -- Bark, with small sand-like particles visible in slash; making a noise like metal on stone or sand when slashed. Venation] -- (Nerves, etc.) partly prominent, the creast above the general surface, but with channels running along-side, as if with gutters. seed -bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf. Flower parts] -- The female parts of a flower; the carpels. Flower details]/[Gynoecium (female parts)] -- A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Capparaceae.
Htree, liane. Ecology] -- The environment in which a plant lives. Leaf base] -- Of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards, like some types of arrow-head.
Head:[Inflorescence types] -- A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster. Ecology] -- 'Sun loving'; typical of forest gaps, road-sides, savanna.
Herb:[Habit] -- A generally small plant without woody stems, without bark. Habit] -- Not woody; soft often green, stems (even on non-herbs) having the texture of a herb stem. Gender] -- (Flower or plant) of both sexes, i.e. with both stamens and ovary, bisexual. Seed] -- The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment. erect, completely covering surface. hirsute: with shorter hairs. bristly hairs. Hairs stiffer and slightly sparser than hirsute . holotype is extant, it fixes the apllication of the name concerned.
Hoop:[Bole] -- (On bark) narrow circle of distinct texture or colour running round tree, twig, etc. Lamina leaf blade] -- Colourless, transparent, used mainly for thickened part of some leaf margins. sub -species etc.), intermediate in character between the parent taxa. Glands]/[Surface details] -- Structures (glands) usually on a leaf margin that secrete water (guttation). venation] -- With a single primary vein and all other venation absent, rudimentary or concealed within a coriaceous or fleshy blade.
IGlands]/[Surface details] -- Small structure, generally of unknown of unspecified function, different in form from adjacent tissues; often referred to as 'gland'. Flower]/[Aestivation] -- Overlapping like tiles on a roof. terminal ). Fleshy fruit) not splitting open at maturity, e.g. drupe or berry. Opposite of dehiscent. Unarmed. Without prickles or spines. Flower]/[Ovary] -- Ovary developing below the point of insertion of petals, etc.; often becoming fruit with calyx remaning at top. axis, and maybe including bracts and bracteoles. inflorescence. Stem] -- Part of stem between nodes. Node] -- (Stipules) on the stem between the two petioles of opposite leaves. stem sandwiched between a petiole and the stem, in the leaf axil. Inflorescence types] -- A whorl or cup of bracts subtending a flower or inflorescence. revolute. holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
Jjuvenile plant, e.g. on coppice shoots.
Kprominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Leguminosae, a boat-shaped structure, formed by the two lower petals. Aerial roots] -- Parts of root which rise out and bend back into soil/water of swamps, like knees of sunken legs.
Knob:[Stem] -- Rounded, e.g. hemispherical protrusions from a surface (e.g. of bole).
Lblade shape] -- Slashed into narrow, ribbon-like (flattened) lobes. See Stipule. blade] -- Flattened green structure repeated many times on tree which normally develops and falls as a unit blade shape] -- Lance-shaped; 3 ? 6 times as long as broad and broadest below middle. See oblanceolate, ovate. lateral nerve which is a secondary nerve branching from the midrib like a rib. Nerve] -- A secondary nerve branching from the midrib like a rib. Bark exudate] -- Opaque, milk like white or yellow, sticky or rubbery exudate . latex.
Lax:Loose arrangement; opposite to dense. stem, especially as they are initiated at the shoot apex. blade] -- Base of leaf or leaflet. Lamina] -- Edge of leaf/leaflet. Compound leaf] -- Structure that forms part of a compound leaf but resembles a simple leaf, with one blade and a petiolule . holotype< /A> where that has been destroyed. fruit type in Leguminosae, or a broad term for any species of Leguminosae. Stem Accessories]/Small, usually corky structure with enclosed gap on bark or young twigs. scurfy scales. Habit] -- See Liane. Habit]/[Climbers] -- Liane (Liana). A climbing, woody plant. Stem] -- Consisting of or containing lignin or xylem; "igneous (= woody< /A> ) tissue. Stem Accessories]/Having a tongue like outgrowth at base of blade or top of sheath . Stem Accessories]/A strap-shaped structure; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses.
Limb:[Flower]/[Tepal] -- The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube. blade shape] -- Long and narrow with ñ parallel sides; strictly with a length/width ratio of about 12:1. Habit] -- Describes the tendency of some plants to accumulate leaf litter, and eventually even soil, around the stems, due to a tight rosette. blade shape] -- A division of an organ, as of a leaf. Simple leaf (or leaflet) with deep (and therefore generally few) irregularities in margin. Ovary] -- an enclosed compartment within an organ, e.g. an ovary, an anther . Ovary] -- see Locule. pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments. blade shape] -- Shaped like a lyre: i.e. lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
MEcology]/[Swamp] -- Sea-side, salt water swamp, or trees growing there. Nerve, gland) situated on the margin (sub marginal = very close to and following margin); marginal placentation = having the ovule inserted along the edges of the placenta . translucent. Leaves thinner than papery. fruit that breaks at maturity into units. flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts. fruit wall, often fleshy and edible in a drupe, sometimes missing. Venation] -- Central and largest channel or vein e.g. of leaf, stipule, petals, bract . Flower details]/[Androecium (male parts)] -- Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle. Gynoecium (female parts)] -- One of several fruit parts derived from (the separate carpels of) a single flower in a few families where the carpels remain free. Inflorescence types] -- A cyme with one branch from each node. Gender] -- With separate male and female flowers, but both sexes on one plant (see dioecious). taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus. Apex of leaf blade] -- Tip of leaf with a stiff narrow process (mucro) on end of midrib. apex]/A small mucro.
NGland] -- Sugary, watery fluid generally secreted to attract animals. Gland] -- A nectar-secreting gland. taxon was based is missing. Venation] -- (Major) channel in lamina after midrib (see marginal, basal, lateral and vein). Stem] -- Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
Node:[Stem] -- Place on stem where leaves, flowers or branches arise or have fallen.
Nut:[Fruit type]/[Indehiscent] -- 1. Strictly, a hard, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit with a hard dry pericarp (the shell); a nutlet is a small nut.
Oblade shape] -- As lanceolate, but broadest part is beyond the middle of the longer axis. blade shape] -- Almost circular but wider than long. Leaf base] -- Having an asymmetrical base. blade shape] -- Leaf roughly broadest in middle with almost parallel sides, c. 1.5-2 times as long as wide. blade shape] -- As OVATE, but broadest beyond middle; c1.2-3x as long as wide. venation] -- Not visible, or not at all clear; if unspecified, then it means here not visible with naked eye. Apex of leaf blade] -- Flat-ended or almost so (apex or base). Node] -- A sheathing stipule. Node] -- With an ochrea. Node] -- Diminutive of ocreate; usually applied to bract bases. Leaf arrangement] -- Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem, the pairs decussate or distichous. blade shape] -- A flat shape, circular in outline. Gynoecium (female parts)] -- The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules. blade shape] -- Leaf with outline (roughly) of egg and broadest below middle. Strictly, 2 -1.5 times as long as broad. Flower details]/[Ovary] -- Organ (inside the ovary in Angiosperms, open in Gymnosperms) that develops into the seed after fertilization.
Pmembranous scales, chaffy. venation] -- Actinodromous, the primary veins with one or more subsidiary radiations above the primary one. compound leaf divided into several leaflets which arise at the same point, there being no rachis. Lobed] -- (Simple leaf) with lobes and main nerves diverging like fingers on a hand; more than three distinct lobes whose main nerves meet at the base. Venation] -- Pattern of nerves with more than 3 basal nerves plus the midrib (whether or not the leaf is lobed as well). See trinerved. blade shape] -- Cut palmately. blade shape] -- Palmately divided almost down to the midrib, i.e. almost digitately compound. blade shape] -- (=Pandurate) Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle and small basal< /A> lobes. Inflorescence types] -- A compound, much-branched inflorescence, where at least some of the branches have more than one flower. blade colour] -- With a felty texture. rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell. Fruit details] -- Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit. venation] -- With two or more primary veins originating beside one another at the blade base and running more or less parallel to the apex where they converge. placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary. Pinnate leaf] -- Pinnate leaf with leaflets all strictly arranged in pairs, all opposite (or sub opposite, very nearly opposite). midrib. palmate or palmately-lobed leaf, having the lateral segments divided again. Flower parts] -- Stalk lifting the flower. Inflorescence parts] -- Stalk (often robust) carrying the inflorescence branches. Lamina] -- Letting light through (translucent); especially for gland spots in leaf. blade shape] -- Leaf with petiole attached to under-surface, not to edge. Habit] -- A plant that lives for more than two years. Lamina] -- Having base completely surrounding stem. Flower parts] -- The calyx and corolla, of outer part of most flowers, especially used when there is little difference between petals and sepals. Perianth]/[Perianth] -- The lobes of a perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished. Fruit details] -- The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall, often merely-skin like; see mesocarp. Flower parts] -- A flower where the base of the perianth and stamens are carried up around, or raised above the base of the ovary, but are not attached. perpendicular to the vertical line. Tepal] -- One of members of inner ring of the perianth, especially if brightly coloured; see corolla. Flower]/[Perianth] -- Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves, when these are arranged around the flower. petiole, not sessile. midrib or rachis of a leaf is attached to the stem. midrib of a leaflet is attached to the axis of a compound leaf. Stem] -- Tissue which conducts sugars and other nutrients; in tree trunks this is found in the cylinder of bark around the wood. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Hairy, covered with long, weak, soft, 'shaggy' hairs. compound leaf with leaflets borne along a rachis. Lobed] -- Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes that diverge from the midrib rather than a single points. midrib. midrib but with the base of the resulting segments just meeting up along it, not quite separate. Ecology] -- (Forest) Plant of which seedlings are found only under canopy gaps; i.e. the first plants to appear when a forest is disturbed. Flower details]/[Gynoecium (female parts)] -- The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
Pith:[Stem] -- Very soft and airy tissue at the centre of stems or roots . Fruit details] -- The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached. Aerial roots] -- Root attachment arising above water/soil surface in swamps.
Pod:[Fruit type] -- Dry, usually flattened fruit from a single carpel, with seeds in one line; ñ opening along two edges. Principally in Leguminosae. Anther] -- The powdery mass of male spores (powdery cells or bundles of cells) shed from the anthers of seed plants. Stem accessories] -- An enation that is hard, pointed outgrowth from the surface of a plant, involving several layers of cells, but not containing vascular tissue. Prickle. Habit] -- Trailing or spreading along the ground. Aerial roots] -- Root growing ñ downwards from branches (& lower stem); see stilt root. Habit] -- Lying flat on the ground. Stem accessories] -- Lower leaflets on PINNATE leaf which, surrounding twig, resemble stipules. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Minutely pubescent . Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Hairy, but neither densely, nor roughly so. Petiole] -- Petiole which has a pulvinus (or two of them). Petiole] -- A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular, jointed (like a knee) or even responsive to touch. Gland] -- Spotted with glands (or small, undefined, flat, translucent dots). Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Raised bump or wart-like spot. foetid. Fruit details] -- The 'stone' of a drupe or similar fruit, sometimes synonymous with but or nutlet.
RFlower arrangement]/[Inflorescence types] -- Unbranched, elongated inflorescence with no terminal flower and with the lowest flowers the most developed; individual flowers with pedicel. Compound Leaf] -- That part of the axis of a pinnate or more highly compound leaf that bears leaflets or branches of the axis. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Cystolith -like crystal structure in the Rubiaceae. Floret] -- Small flowers of the edges of the capitulae of Asteraceae. Flower parts] -- Top of flower stalk, ñ fleshy, usually basal part of flower supporting perianth, ovary, stamens etc. prominent than surrounding tissues but more sunken in channel than with impressed veins. Also a small indentation or hollow. blade shape] -- Box-like, longer than wide or vice versa. Revolute margins are more strongly rolled over, but there is no standard blade shape] -- Kidney-shaped, with shallow sinus and widely rounded margins. Sinus with indentions less than 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein. Apparently a more precise term than undulate. Bark Exudate] -- Resinous exudate, usually of scented hydrocarbons; see resin duct. Lamina] -- A duct that secrets resin; see resin. Venation] -- Arranged like strings in a net. venation] -- With a single primary vein, the secondary veins not terminating at the margin and losing their identities near the margin by repeated branching, yielding a dense reticulum. Apex of leaf blade] -- Emarginate ending on a rounded or obtuse apex. abaxial (lower) surface, see recurved. Root] -- Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened. blade shape] -- Four-sided, widest near mid-length with one pair of sides different from the adjacent pair.
Root:One of the three basic parts of the seed plant body, that part of the axial system which is usually underground; does not bear leaves and only rarely shoots; is indeterminate in growth and often with secondary thickening. Root. Leaf arrangement] -- A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane. blade shape] -- (Leaf apex with) margins and apex forming a smooth arc. Endosperm] -- Where the surface is wrapped into the object, brain-like, esp. of seed: very contorted, or convoluted (as if chewed or wrapped up) in X section
SLeaf base] -- Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards. Habit] -- A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms. Venation] -- Arranged like rungs in a ladder, particularly used for 3ø or finer venation. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Dry and membranous in texture. membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous. foetid. Fruit type]/[Dehiscent] -- A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe. Habit] -- Plant growing upwards supporting itself on other vegetation or objects, but not twining or grasping, often by means of prickles, spines or thorns (excluding grasping hooks). Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- With fine flaky covering like rust or dandruff. Flower arrangement]/[Inflorescence types] -- One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence).
Seed:[Fruit details] -- (Part of fruit) derived from single fertilized ovule (ovule contains the 'egg'). venation] -- With a single primary vein, the secondary veins branching just within the margin, one branch from each terminating at the margin and the other forming a marginal loop and joining the superadjacent secondary vein . Flower]/[Tepal] -- One of the lobes of the outer part of perianth, especially if leaf like; see calyx. Fruit type]/[Dehiscent] -- (Capsule ) opening along the edges of the carpels. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Silky, with a covering of long, appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs. midrib or midvein). serrate, but cut to 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein. Attachment] -- Without a stalk. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Beset with bristles or fairly sparse stiff hairs. Ecology] -- Plant that can tolerate the full canopy shade of taller trees: the lower layers of undisturbed forest are rich in them. Node] -- A tubular tissue, enveloping another organ; e.g. often prickly layer on rattan stems from base of leaf enclosing stem below junction. Stem] -- A young stem or branch. Habit] -- Woody, branching from the ground perennials with persistent above-ground parts and without one well-expressed trunk. Habit] -- Small, young shrub . blade shape] -- Bent like the letter S. Fruit type]/[Dehiscent] -- A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. blade. It may be toothed, scalloped, or lobed but is never divided all the way to the leafstalk. See also compound leaf. rounded, but irregular channels, like straining muscles. wavy in a horizontal plane, without distinctive teeth or lobes, indented 1/16-1/8 distance. wavy (margin); highly curvaceous Lobed] -- The gap or dip between teeth or lobes. Bark] -- Section through cut bark, showing various layers above sapwood, sometimes with exudate Inflorescence parts] -- A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis. Flower arrangement]/[Inflorescence parts] -- A large bract surrounding an inflorescence. blade shape] -- (Drip tip) with round, broadened apex like a spoon. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- With crystals in or on the surface. Inflorescence types] -- Unbranched inflorescence; individual flowers without stalks (see raceme). bark; or similarly needle-like thickenings of leaf margin. Spine Bark texture] -- Cellular; sponge-like (in appearance or to touch). Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Having coarse scales. Androecium (male parts)] -- The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen. Flower]/[Androecium (male parts)] -- A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Star-shaped hair, or cluster of hairs radiating from a point.
Stem:One of the three basic parts of the seed plant body, that part of the axial system which bears leaves and buds and flowers. Gender] -- Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers; (sterile specimen = one without flowers). Flower]/[Gynoecium (female parts)] -- Top part of style, to which pollen becomes attached, of various shapes. Tree bole]/[Aerial roots] -- Woody, supportive roots (stilt roots) growing from trunk (not branches as well) of tree at base to ground. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- With erect trichomes that irritate or sting when touched. ovary or fruit to the receptacle in some flowers. leaflet on some compound Ieaves. Stem] -- Leaf-like or other small structure close to petiole at leaf node, often in opposite pairs, or as a complete sheath around stem. Root] -- A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish. epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ surrounded by two guard cells and often also with subsidiary cells, providing for gaseous exchange between plant tissues and the atmosphere (plural=Stomata< /A>). Habit] -- Untidy, irregular, habit, partly trailing but striving to grow upwards. Venation] -- With many fine parallel longitudinal (lengthways) lines. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect, usually with a bulbous base. Flower]/[Gynoecium (female parts)] -- Narrow neck section of female part of flower (gynoecium) connecting ovary to stigma.
Sub:Not quite; almost e.g. sub-cordate (slightly cordate). Stem] -- Corky. Venation] -- (Nerve) running close to margin. Leaf arrangement] -- Almost, but not always or not exactly opposite Habit] -- A plant having felshy stems or leaves. Stem] -- New shoot arising from ground at base of tree. Habit] -- Woody basally, herbaceous apically. Flower]/[Ovary] -- Ovary developing above the point of insertion of perianth; becoming fruit with calyx at base; the sepals, petals and stamens are in stem upward from leaf base. Habitat] -- Flat or low-lying ground permanently or regularly soaked with (standing) water. blade shape] -- Regular, with one half equal in size and shape (but usually mirrored) to the other. Flower] -- Indicating the relationships of the various parts of a structure about its axis. Stem] -- Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex). Taxonomy]/[Type specimens] -- One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
TRoot] -- A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons. Habit]/[Climbers] -- A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf. Perianth] -- One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differentiated into calyx (with sepals) and corolla Stem]/[Shape 3d] -- A cylindrical structure, circular in cross-section, rather than a fluted or grooved or many-sided one. apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth. Stem] -- Any sharp-pointed structure, including spines and prickles. Tree Crown] -- Layers; storeys, like floors in a many floored house. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- With very dense short, matted hairs and soft texture, like felt. Gland dot] -- Letting light through, but murky and not transparent (especially of exudates etc.). Venation] -- (Nerves, lines on bark etc.) running perpendicular to axis (of leaf, bole etc.).
Tree:[Habit] -- A woody plant that produces one main trunk or bole, and a distinct more or less elevated head . Habit] -- Small tree, usually <7 m tall. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- A minute outgrowth from the epidermis, variable in size and complexity, but including hairs, scales, and glandular hairs Compound leaf types] -- Compound leaves with three leaflets attached to end of petiole (ternate). Venation] -- With 2 (or more, but see palmately veined which is specifically for 4 or more basal nerves) strong basal nerves besides the midrib. divided. Apex of leaf blade] -- Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of lamina tips as well as bases). Tree] -- Vertical part of tree supporting crown (i.e. bole + primary axis of crown) stem tips, or the distal end of a root, e.g. a yam or potato.
Tuft:Brush like cluster of hairs, shoots or leaves.
Twig:[Stem] -- Small branch (here used for the branchlets of woody plants other than those which twine). Habit] -- A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body. Taxonomy] -- Specimen on which species descriptions have been based.
UInflorescence types] -- An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point. Stem] -- Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs. wavy up-and-down when leaf viewed in side view, i.e. not flat.
VFlower details]/[Aestivation] -- Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves. Fruit details] -- One of the flaps/parts/sides opening on a dehiscent fruit. blade colour] -- Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
Vein:[Venation] -- See venation . Venation] -- See venation. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Velvety: densely covered with soft, short (or long) erect hairs. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Like the cloth called Velvet; a carpet of very dense short ñ erect silky hairs forming a very soft carpet. Lamina leaf blade] -- The system or pattern of lateral nerves and veins, or ('finer venation') just veins. Leaf arrangement] -- Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Covered with long, weak and often crooked hairs. Indumentum (hairs, etc.)] -- Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
Wavy:[Leaf margin] -- With smooth, shallow curves in the sense of the leaf edge, viewed from on top in plan view. (Sometimes called repand by others). Leaf arrangement] -- An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis; leaves, branches etc more than two per node . Stem]/[Shape 3d] -- Thin layer, shelf or sheet along side (of petiole, fruit, etc.); in zygomorphic flowers, one of the lateral (side) petals . Stem] -- Hard and lignified.