Neotropical Vochysiaceae

Flávio França

Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. 

Description

Trees or shrubs; resinous. Leaves opposite, whorled or rarely alternate, leathery, simple, with or without stipules, when present, then small, sometimes represented by glands. Lamina entire, mucilaginous epidermis present (often), or absent; hairs present; exclusively eglandular. Inflorescences cymose, terminal, flowers aggregated into thyrses. Flowers bracteolate obliquely zygomorphic, tetracyclic, perigynous or epigynous, hypanthium present or absen; perianth usually with distinct calyx and corolla, or corolla sometimes missing; isomerous, or anisomerous; calyx connate basally, with 5 lobes markedly longer than tube, the posterior lobe commonly enlarged spurred or gibbous. Corolla usually present, with 1-3 or occasionally 5 petals; stamens usually 1, rarely 5, free; staminodes, when present usually 0-4; anthers sometimes with an expanded connective; ovary syncarpous, 1 or 3 carpellate, superior or inferior; placentation marginal when ovary inferior, axile when ovary superior; ovules 2 to many per locule. Fruits loculicidal capsules or indehiscent and winged samaroid. Seeds often with conspicuous trichomes or glabrous, often winged.

Notes on delimitation

  • Although anatomy and molecular data strongly suggest that Vochysiaceae are to be included in Myrtales, at first sight the flowers appear unlike those of the other members of the order.
  • Hardly surprisingly, Vochysiaceae have often been associated with families that are no longer thought to be at all closely related such as the Polygalaceae; and Vochysiaceae has often included Euphronia Mart. which has recently been recognised as a separate family related to the Chrysobalanaceae.

Distribution in the Neotropics

  • Lowland tropical America, Mexico to southern of Brazil.

Distinguishing characters (always present)

Other important characters

Key differences from similar families

  • Vochysiaceae is closely related to Mytaceae, but the two families are very different.
  • Myrtaceae have a lot of stamens, ovary always inferior, corolla pentamerous.
  • Vochysiaceae have only one fertile stamen, ovary often superior and corolla rarely pentamerous.

Number of genera

  • There are 4 Neotropical genera: Vochysia Aubl. (c. 100 spp.), Qualea Aubl. (incl. Ruizterania) (c. 60 spp.), Callisthene Mart. (11 spp.) and Salvertia A.St.-Hil. (1 sp.)

Notable genera and distinguishing features

  • Vochysia species include great trees with very beautiful yellow flowers.
  • Qualea species only have one petal but it is very pretty, yellow, white or blue.

Status

  • Vochysiaceae is very common in the Brazilian plateau.
  • Some species are tolerated in urban arborization, but rarely cultivated.
  • Salvertia is endemic to Brazilian savanna vegetation (cerrado).
  • Callisthene also has a restricted distribution.

General notes

  • Aluminum accumulators.

Important literature

BARBOSA, A.R. 1999. As espécies de Vochysia Aublet (Vochysiaceae) ocorrentes no estado de Sao Paulo. Dissertacao de mestrado, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas.

FRANCA, F. 1996. O gênero Callisthene Mart. & Zucc. (Vochysiaceae) no estado da Bahia. Sitientibus 15: 41-47.

FRANCA, F. 1998. Vochysiaceae no Distrito Federal. Boletim do Herbário Ezechias Paulo Heringer 2: 7-18.

KAWASAKI, M. L. 1995. Vochysiaceae. In Flora of Pico das Almas, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil (B. Stannard, ed.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, p. 639-643.

KAWASAKI, M.L. 1998. Systematics of Erisma (Vochysiaceae). Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden, 81: 1-40.

LISBOA, M. 2000. Estudos taxonomicos sobre o gênero Qualea Aubl. subgênero Amphilochia (Mart.) Stafleu. Dissertacao de Mestrado. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.

LITT, A. & CHASE, M. 1998. The systematic position of Eupronia, with comments on the position of Balanops: an analysis based on rbcL sequence data. Systematic Botany 23: 401-409.

LITT, A. & CHEEK, M. 2002. Korupodendron songweanum, a new genus and species of Vochysiaceae from West-Central Africa. Brittonia 54: 13-17.

LLERAS, E. 1976. Revision and taxonomic position of the genus Eupronia Martius ex Martius & Zuccarini (Vochysiaceae). Acta Amazonica 6: 43-47.

MARCANO-BERTI, L. 1969. Un nuevo genero de las Vochysiaceae. Pittieria 2: 3-27.

MARTINS, H.F. 1981 O gênero Callisthene Mart. (Vochysiaceae). Ensaio para uma revisao taxinômica. Tese de mestrado. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 115p.

NEGRELLE, R.R. 1988. Vochysiaceae St. Hil. do estado do Paraná, Brasil. Dissertacao de mestrado, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba.

PASSOS, V. & FRANCA, F. 2003. Vochysiaceae da Chapada Diamantina-Bahia, Brasil. Sitientibus, série Ciências Biológicas, 3: 35-43.

STAFLEU, F.A. 1948. A monograph of the Vochysiaceae. I. Salvertia and Vochysia. Recueil des Travaux Botanique Néerlandaise 41: 397-540.

STAFLEU, F.A.1952. II. Callisthene. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 1: 222-242.

STAFLEU, F.A. 1953. III. Qualea. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 2: 144-217.

STAFLEU, F.A.1954a. IV. Erisma. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 3: 459-480.

STAFLEU, F.A.1954b. Novitates Vochysiacearum I. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 3:405-411.

VIANNA, M.C. & MARTINS, H.F. 2001. Voquisiáceas. In Flora ilustrada Catarinense (A. Reis, ed.). Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues, Itajaí.

VIANNA, M.C. & PEREIRA, J.F. 2002. Novitates Vochysiae- I. Boletim do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Botânica 117, p. 1-11.

VIANNA, M.C. 1980. O gênero Vochysia Aublet (Vochysiaceae) no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rodriguésia 32: 237-317.

VIANNA, M.C. 1994. Nota sobre a ocorrência de três táxons do gênero Vochysia Aublet (Vochysiaceae) na regiao de Carangola-MG. Pabstia 5: 9-19.

VIANNA, M.C., PEREIRA, J.F. & FRANCA, F. 2002. Novitates Vochysiae-II. Boletim do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Botânica 118, p.1-5.

WARMING, E. 1875. Vochysiaceae. In Flora Brasiliensis (C.F.P Martius, ed.), v. 13, pars 2, p. 17-166, tab. 2-21.

How to cite

Flávio França (2009). Neotropical Vochysiaceae. In: Milliken, W., Klitgård, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Vochysiaceae.htm.

Click images to enlarge


Callisthene fasciculata © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Callisthene fasciculata © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Callisthene fasciculata © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Callisthene fasciculata © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Callisthene major © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Callisthene major © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Erisma floribundum © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Erisma floribundum © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Erisma fuscum © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Erisma fuscum © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Qualea cordata © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Qualea cordata © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Qualea cordata © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea grandiflora © Bente Klitgaard, RBG, Kew.



Qualea grandiflora © Bente Klitgaard, RBG, Kew.



Qualea grandiflora © Bente Klitgaard, RBG, Kew.



Qualea grandiflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea grandiflora © Denise Sasaki, RBG, Kew.



Qualea homosepala © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Flowers of Qualea multiflora © Peter Gasson, RBG, Kew.



Qualea multiflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea multiflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea paraensis © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Qualea paraensis © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Qualea paraensis © Denise Sasaki, RBG, Kew.



Qualea paraensis © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Qualea parviflora © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Qualea parviflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea parviflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea parviflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea parviflora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Qualea rupicola © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Salvertia convallariodora © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia acuminata © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia citrifolia © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Crisalino.



Vochysia elliptica © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia floribunda © Gracieli Henicka, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Vochysia floribunda © Gracieli Henicka, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Vochysia floribunda © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora cristalino.



Vochysia floribunda © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora cristalino.



Vochysia floribunda © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora cristalino.



Vochysia floribunda © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora cristalino.



Vochysia gardneri © Denise Sasaki, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia haenkeana © Denise Sasaki, Programa Flora Cristalino.



Vochysia haenkeana © Denise Sasaki, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia haenkeana © Lisa Campbell, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia pygmaea © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia pygmaea © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia pygmaea © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia thyrsoidea © Bente Klitgaard, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia thyrsoidea © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia thyrsoidea © William Milliken, RBG, Kew



Vochysia thyrsoidea © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia thyrsoidea © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia thyrsoidea © Daniela Zappi, RBG, Kew.



Vochysia tucanorum © William Milliken, RBG, Kew.