Neotropical Poaceae

Hilda Maria Longhi-Wagner* and Reyjane Patricia de Oliveira**

*Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq

**Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq 

Description

Annual or perennial, less commonly sublignified to lignified plants, caespitose, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Leaves alternate, distichous, leaf-sheaths open, less commonly closed, adaxial ligule generally present, membranaceous to pilose, leaf-blades linear to lanceolate, less frequently ovate to oblong-lanceolate, and with a pseudopetiole, auricles occasionally present. Synflorescence paniculate, racemose or less commonly spicate formed by spikelets, each spikelet compound (1-) 2 basal glumes (sterile bracts) followed by 1- many anthecia (florets), each anthecium formed by an external lemma and an internal palea (sometimes absent) including one flower, less commonly barren. Flower often bisexual with 2(-3) lodicules (scales), these rarely absent, (1-) 3 (-6-many) stamens and 2 (3) fused carpels, or less commonly unisexual. Fruit a caryopsis, sometimes modified with a fleshy pericarp.

Distribution in the Neotropics

  • Throughout the Neotropics at all altitudes and in almost all vegetation types.
  • See 'General Notes' for information on the distribution of the subfamilies.

Distinguishing characters (always present)

  • Herbaceous (species from open habitats); herbaceous to lignified (from forest habitats).
  • Culm with nodes and internodes; one leaf per node; leaves alternate.
  • Adaxial ligule in the leaves (rarely absent).
  • Flower included in two bracts (lemma and palea) that form the anthecium (or floret); one or more anthecia are grouped in spikelets that represent the basic inflorescence in grasses; two (rarely one) sterile bracts (glumes) at the base of the spikelet.
  • Ovary superior, 2-(3)-carpellate, uniloculate. 
  • Fruit a caryopsis.

Other important characters

  • C3 and C4 photosynthesis.
  • Silica bodies.

Key differences from similar families

  • Poaceae are sometimes confused with Cyperaceae, which differ from Poaceae in the following characters: Cyperaceae; leaves tristichous, with closed sheath, most of the genera without an adaxial ligule; flowers with a perianth reduced to bristles or scales, sometimes absent, each flower protected by only one bract (glume), without forming one anthecium; fruit a nutlet.

Number of genera

There is no citation of an exact number of genera and species of New World Poaceae.  The following estimates were published in the four volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses:

  • Subfamilies Anomochlooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pharoideae - 72 genera (51 native) and 608 species (509 native) (Judziewicz et al., 2000).
  • Subfamily Chloridoideae - 70 genera (62 native) and 672 species (604 native) (Peterson et al., 2001).
  • Subfamily Pooideae - 121 genera (82 native) and 1526 species (1311 native) (Soreng et al., 2003).
    Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae - 119 genera (93 native) and 1613 species (1465 native) (Zuloaga et al., 2003).

Genera of Poaceae ocurring in the Neotropics (* non native in the Neotropics, with adventitious or cultivated species)

Anomochlooideae
Anomochloa Brongn.
Streptochaeta Schrad. ex Nees

Aristidoideae
Aristida L.

Arundinoideae
Arundo L.*
Molinia Schrank.*
Phragmites Adans.

Bambusoideae
Actinocladum McClure ex Soderstr.
Agnesia Zuloaga & Judz.
Alvimia C.E.Calderón ex Soderstr. & Londoño
Apoclada McClure
Arberella Soderstr. & C.E. Calderón
Arthrostylidium Rupr.
Arundinaria Michx.
Athroostachys Benth.
Atractantha McClure
Aulonemia Goudot
Bambusa Schreb.*
Cephalostachyum Munro*
Chimonobambusa  Makin*
Chusquea Kunth
Colanthelia McClure & L.B.Sm.
Cryptochloa Swallen
Drendrocalamopsis (L.C. Chia & H.L. Fung) Keng f.*
Dendrocalamus Nees*
Drepanostachyum Keng f. *
Diandrolyra Stapf
Ekmanocloa Hitchc.
Elytrostachys McClure
Eremitis Döll
Eremocaulon Soderstr. & Londoño
Fargesia Franch. *
Filgueirasia Guala
Froesiochloa G.A. Black
Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro*
Glaziophyton Franch.
Guadua Kunth
Indocalamus Nakai*
Lithachne P. Beauv.
Maclurolyra C.E. Calderón & Soderstr.
Melocanna Trin.*
Merostachys Spreng.
Mniochloa Chase
Myriocladus Swallen
Ochlandra Thwaites*
Olmeca Soderstr.
Olyra L.
Otatea (McClure & E.W. Sm.) C. E. Calderón & Soderstr. *
Pariana Aubl.
Parodiolyra Soderstr. & Zuloaga
Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc.*
Piresia Swallen
Piresiella Judz., Zuloaga & Morrone
Pleioblastus Nakai*
Pseudosasa Makino ex Nakai*
Raddia Bertol.
Raddiella Swallen
Rehia Fitjen
Reitzia Swallen
Rhipidocladum McClure
Sasa Makino & Shibata*
Schizostachyum Nees*
Semiarundinaria Makino ex Nakai*
Sucrea Soderstr.

Chloridoideae
Aegopogon Humb. & Bonpl.
Allolepis Soderstr.
Bealia Scribn.
Blepharidachne Hack.
Blepharoneuron Nash
Bouteloua Lag.
Calamovilfa (A. Gray) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw.
Chaboissaea E. Fourn.
Chladoraphis Franch.
Chloris Sw.
Cottea Kunth
Crypsis Aiton
Ctenium Panz.
Cynodon Rich.
Dactyloctenium Willd.*
Dasyochloa Willd. ex Rydb.
Dinebra Jacq.*
Distichlis Raf.
Eleusine Gaertn.
Enneapogon Desv. ex P. Beauv.*
Enteropogon Nees
Eragrostis Wolf
Erioneuron Nash
Eustachys Desv.
Fingerhuthia Nees
Gouinia E. Fourn. ex Benth.
Gymnopogon P. Beauv.
Hilaria Kunth
Jouvea E. Fourn.
Leptochloa P.Beauv.
Leptothrium Kunth
Lepturidium Hitchc. & Ekman
Lycurus Kunth
Microchloa R. Br. 
Monanthochloe Engelm.
Muhlenbergia Schreb.
Neesiochloa Pilg.
Neobouteloua Gould
Neostapfia Burtt Davy
Neyraudia Hook. f.
Orcuttia Vasey
Pappophorum Schreb.
Pereilema J.Presl
Pleuraphis Torr.*
Redfieldia Vasey
Reederochloa Soderstr. & H.F. Decker
Rheochloa Filg. et al.
Saugetia Hitchc. & Chase
Schaffnerella Nash
Schdonnardus Steud.
Scleropogon Phil.
Sohnsia Airy Shaw
Spartina Schreb.
Sporobolus R. Br.
Steirachne Ekman
Swallenia Soderstr. & H.F. Decker
Tetrachne Nees*
Tragus Haller*
Trichloris E. Fourn.
Trchoneura Andersson
Tridens Roem. & Schult.
Triplasis P. Beauv.
Tripogon Roem. & Schult.
Triraphis R.Br.
Tuctoria Reeder
Uniola L.
Vaseyochloa Hitchc.
Willkommia Hack.
Zoysia Willd.

Danthonioideae
Cortaderia Stapf
Danthonia DC.
Hakonechloa Makino ex Honda
Lamphrothyrsus Pilg.
Rytidosperma Steud.
Schismus P. Beauv.* 
Tribolium Desv.*

Ehrhartoideae
Ehrharta Thunb.*    
Leersia Sol. ex Sw.
Luziola Juss.
Oryza L.
Rhynchoryza Baill.
Streptogyna P. Beauv.
Zizaniopsis Döll & Asch.

Panicoideae
Achlaena Griseb.
Acostia Swallen
Acroceras Stapf
Agenium Nees
Alloteropsis J. Presl
Altoparadisium Filg. et al. 
Amphicarpum Kunth
Andropogon L.
Anthaenantia P. Beauv.
Anthaenantiopsis Mez ex Pilg.
Anthephora Schreb.
Apluda L.
Apochloa Zuloaga & Morrone
Arthraxon P. Beauv.
Arthropogon Nees
Arundinella Raddi
Arundoclaytonia Davidse & R.P. Ellis
Axonopus P. Beauv.
Bothriochloa Kuntze
Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb.*
Calderonella Soderstr. & H.F. Decker
Canastra Morrone et al.
Cenchrus L.
Centrochloa Swallen
Chaetium Nees
Chasmanthium Link
Chrysopogon Trin.
Coix L.*
Cymbopogon Spreng.*
Cyrtococcum Stapf*
Cyphonanthus Zuloaga & Morrone
Dichanthelium (Hitchc. & Chase) Gould
Dichantium Willemet
Digitaria Haller
Echinochloa P. Beauv.
Echinolaena Desv.
Elionurus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Elymandra Stapf
Eremochloa Büse*
Eriochloa Kunth
Eriochrysis P. Beauv.  
Euclasta Franch*
Gerritea Zuloaga, Morrone & Killeen
Gynerium Willd. ex P. Beauv.  
Hemarthria R. Br.
Heteropogon Pers.
Homolepis Chase
Hopia Zuloaga & Morrone
Hymenachne P. Beauv.
Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E. Fourn.
Hyperthelia Clayton
Ichnanthus P. Beauv.
Imperata Cirillo
Isachne R. Br.
Ischaemum L.
Ixophorus Schltdl.
Karroochloa Conert & Türpe*
Keratochlaena Morrone & Zuloaga
Lasiacis (Griseb.) Hitchc.
Loudetia Hochst. ex Steud.
Loudetiopsis Conert
Megathyrsus (Pilg.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs*
Melinis P. Beauv.*
Mesosetum Steud.
Microstegium Nees*
Miscanthus Andersson
Mnesithea Kunth
Ocellochloa Zuloaga & Morrone
Oncorachis Morrone & Zuloaga
Ophiochloa Filg.,Davidse & Zuloaga
Oplismenopsis Parodi
Oplismenus P. Beauv.
Orthoclada P. Beauv.
Otachyrium Nees
Panicum L.
Paratheria Griseb.
Parodiophyllochloa Zuloaga & Morrone
Paspalidium Stapf
Paspalum L.
Pennisetum Rich.
Phanopyrum (Raf.) Nash
Plagiantha Renvoize
Pogonatherum P. Beauv.*
Pohlidium Davidse, Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis
Polytrias Hack.*
Pseudechinolaena Stapf
Reimarochloa Hitchc.
Renvoizea Zuloaga & Morrone
Reynaudia Kunth
Rhytachne Desv. ex Ham.
Rottboellia L.f.*
Rupichloa Salariato & Morrone
Saccharum L.
Sacciolepis Nash
Schizachyrium Nees
Scutachne Hitchc. & Chase
Setaria P. Beauv.
Setariopsis Scribn.
Sorghastrum Nash
Sorghum Moench*
Spheneria Kuhlm.
Spodiopogon Trin.*
Steinchisma Raf.
Stenotaphrum Trin.
Steyermarkochloa Davidse & R.P. Ellis
Streptostachys Desv.
Tatianyx Zuloaga & Soderstr.
Themeda Forssk.*
Thrasyopsis Parodi
Thysanolaena Nees
Trachypogon Nees
Tripsacum L.
Triscenia Griseb.
Tristachya Nees
Urochloa P. Beauv.
Zea L.
Zeugites P. Browne
Zuloagaea Bess.

Pharoideae
Pharus P. Browne

Pooideae
Agrostis L.
Aira L.
Amphibromus Nees
Anthoxanthum L.*
Arrhenatherum P. Beauv.
Avena L.*
Briza L.
Bromus L.
Calamagrostis Adans.
Catapodium Link*
Chascolytrum Desv.
Dactylis L.*
Deschampsia (L.) P. Beauv.
Erianthecium Parodi
Festuca L.
Glyceria R. Br.
Hainardia Greuter
Holcus L.*
Hordeum L.
Lagurus L.
Lolium L.*
Melica L.
Phalaris L.
Phleum L.
Piptochaetium J. Presl
Poa L.
Polypogon Desf.
Rostraria Trin.
Schedonorus P. Beauv.
Secale L.*
Stipa L.
Trisetum Pers.
Triticum L.*
Vulpia C.C. Gmel.

 

Status

  • Native, though many genera have been introduced into cultivation or have become naturalized (See 'Number of genera').

General notes

Notes on the subfamilies and their distribution in the Neotropics

  • Poaceae is presently divided into 12 subfamilies (Clark, 2009): Anomochlooideae, Pharoideae, Puelioideae, Bambusoideae, Erhartoideae, Pooideae, Danthonioideae, Arundinoideae, Micrairoideae, Aristidoideae, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae.  The first four subfamilies occur mainly in forests, frequently with pseudopetiolate leaves, and their photosynthetic pathway is C3 (Bambusoideae) or presumed C3 (GPWG, 2001). 
  • The representatives of the other subfamilies occur predominantly in open savannas and grasslands and present generally linear and not pseudopetiolate leaves, with C3 or C4 photosynthesis, depending on the subfamily.  Of these subfamilies only Puelioideae is not represented in the Neotropics.

Anomochlooideae is the most basal lineage in Poaceae, and includes two Neotropical genera: Anomochloa Brong., a monospecific genus with A. marantoidea Brong. endemic from the Atlantic Forest in the Southern Bahia, Brazil, and Streptochaeta Schrad., including about three neotropical forest species (Judziewicz et al., 2000). A. marantoidea Brong. is included in the Brazilian list of endangered species (MMA, 2008). The reproductive structures of these species are not considered as being true spikelets (GPWG, 2001). 

Aristidoideae includes three genera: Sartidia de Winter, with four African species and photosynthesis C3; Stipagrostis Nees, with ca. 50 African and Asian species and with C4 photosynthesis; and Aristida L., with ca. 250 species widespread in the tropics of the Old World and in the Neotropics. Until recently all the species of Aristida were mentioned as C4, with a double Kranz sheath around the vascular bundles, a unique characteristic among the Poaceae (Brown, 1977; Hattersley, 1986). However, recently Cerros-Talipa & Columbus (2009) found one C3 species, A. longifolia Trin., from Neotropical savannas and "cerrados". In the Neotropics there are about 130 species of Aristida (Zuloaga et al., 2003).

Arundinoideae circumscription has changed very much in the taxonomic history of Poaceae. In its present circumscription it includes 33 to 38 species, all with photosynthesis C3 (GPWG, 2001). The tribe Arundineae, presently with a circumscription identical to the subfamily (GPWG, 2001), is cosmopolitan but best developed in southern latitudes (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986). In the Neotropics there are four genera, three of them introduced (Zuloaga et al., 2003)., and only Phragmites Adans., a cosmopolitan genus with three to four species (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986) includes a native member [P. australis (Nees) Döll].

Bambusoideae representatives occur predominantly in forests, although some genera present species growing in open grasslands especially in high altitudes, e.g. the genus Chusquea Kunth, and are C3, as the three subfamilies mentioned above. Bambusoideae presents a very high richness, with ca. 1,400 species (Clark, 2009) and includes two traditional groups, the lignified bamboos (tribe Bambuseae), very diverse in the Neotropics, and the herbaceous bamboos (tribe Olyreae), almost restricted to this region, except by Olyra latifolia L., also occurring in Africa (native or introduced?) and Burgersiochloa Pilger, monospecific and endemic from New Guinea (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986). Bamboos are highly diverse in the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil, including four genera endemic from Olyreae (Oliveira et al., 2006) and only one from Bambuseae (Judziewicz et al., 2000). It is well represented in the Amazonian Forest as well, but more collections are needed in this area.

Chloridoideae includes ca. 1,400 species (GPWG, 2001) from the paleotropics and Neotropics, mostly with C4 photosynthesis (only one African species of Eragrostis Wolf and one of Merxmuellera Conert known as C3, according to GPWG, 2001). These species occur mainly in open grasslands and savannas, and only a few species occur at the borders of forests. In the Neotropics there about 70 genera and 650 species (Peterson et al., 2001).

Danthonioideae includes ca. 250 species, with C3 photosynthesis (GPWG, 2001), mainly from Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. It is represented in the New World by Cortaderia Stapf, Danthonia DC. and Rytidosperma Steud., including mainly extra-tropical species with a distribution similar to the Pooideae subfamily, and the introduced genera Schismus P. Beauv.  and  Tribolium Desv. (Zuloaga et al., 2003).

Erhartoideae includes about 120 species (GPWG, 2001) from humid to flooded areas, widespread in the tropics and subtropics of the world, with C3 photosynthesis. In the Neotropics eight small genera are found, one of them introduced (Ehrharta Thunb.) and another extra-tropical (Zizania L., according to Judziewicz et al., 2000).

Micrairoideae includes ca.170 species mainly from Australia and Asia, less common in the Neotropics, occurring in open savannas and grasslands and in the borders of forests, with C3 or C4 photosynthesis (Sanchez-Ken et al., 2007). It is represented in the Neotropics by the genus Isachne R. Br. (previously included in the Panicoideae subfamily) that includes ca. 100 species mostly from Tropical Asia (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986) and three to four species from the Neotropics.

Panicoideae presents the highest richness of species within Poaceae, comprising ca. 3,270 species (GPWG, 2001) widespread in the tropics and subtropics, many C4, with three biochemical subtypes, according to Brown (1977) and Hattersley (1986), but also including several C3 species. These species belong especially to the tribe Paniceae, with most members in open areas and some groups from forests, and the tribe Andropogoneae, mainly from open areas. Paniceae from forests are often C3, but some species from open and arid areas are also C3 in this group, as in the "campos rupestres" of Southeastern Brazil, e.g. in Apochloa Zuloaga & Morrone and Renvoizea Zuloaga & Morrone (Sede et al., 2008). Likewise, Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, a species typical of the "cerrados" in Central and Southeastern Brazil, is also C3. In the Neotropics there are ca. 120 genera (Zuloaga et al., 2003).

Pharoideae is the next divergent lineage of Poaceae (GPWG, 2001), with true spikelets, these being unisexual and bearing only one staminate or one pistillate flower. This subfamily includes three genera and 12 species (GPWG, 2001) occurring both in the Neotropics and in the tropics of the Old World. The genus Pharus Browne is the only Neotropical genus, with ca. five forest species (Judziewicz et al., 2000).

Pooideae
includes ca. 3,300 species (GPWG, 2001), all C3, in open grasslands, occurring especially in extra-tropical areas. Soreng et al. (2003) indicated 121 genera in the New World, 82 native and 39 cultivated. Many members occur in the Andean Mountains. In Brazil, most species also occur in extra-tropical grasslands. Only a small number of these species extend to the Neotropical grasslands in the mountains of Southeastern Brazil.

Important literature

Beetle, A.A. 1983, 1987, 1991, 1995. Las gramíneas del México. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos, Cotecoca.

Brown, W.V. 1977. The kranz syndrom and its subtypes in grass systematic. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 23(3): 331-422.

Burman, A.G. 1985. Nature and composition of grass flora of Brazil. Willdenowia 15: 211-233.

Cerros-Tlatilpa, R. & Columbus, T. 2009. C3 photosynthesis in Aristida longifolia: implications for photosynthetic diversification in Aristidoideae (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 96(8): 1379-1387.

Clark, L.G. 2009. Subfamilial classification of the Poaceae, with emphasis on the Bambusoideae. In: Moura, C.W.N., Silva, T.R.S., Giulietti-Harley, A.M. & Santos, F.A.R. (orgs.). Botânica Brasileira: futuro e compromissos. Abstracts in DVD: 218-222.

Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. 1986. Genera Graminum. Grasses of the World. Her Maj. Stat. Office, London.

Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2002 onwards). World Grass Species: Descriptions, Identification, and Information Retrieval. In: <http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html>.

Davidse, G. & Pohl, R.W. 1994. Poaceae. In: Davidse, G., Sousa, M.S. & Chater, A.O. (eds.). Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City.

Döll, J.C. 1871-1877. Gramineae I. In: C.F.P. Martius & A.W. Eichler (eds.). Flora Brasiliensis 2(2): 1-357. reimpr. Verlag, Munich.

Filgueiras, T.S., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Viana, P.L., Zanin, A., Guglieri, A., Oliveira, R.C. de, Canto-Dorow, T.S. & R.P. Oliveira. 2010. Poaceae. In: R.C. Forzza et al. (eds.). Catalogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil vol. 2, pp. 1464-1520.  Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.

Judziewicz, E.J. 1990. Poaceae. In: A.R.A. Gorts-van Rijn (ed.). Flora of the Guyanas. Koeltz, Koenigstein.

Judziewicz, E.J., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X. & Stern, M.J. 1999. American bamboos, 392pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Judziewicz, E.J., Soreng, R.J., Davidse, G., Peterson, P.M., Filgueiras, T.S. & Zuloaga, F. O. 2000. Catalogue of New Word Grasses (Poaceae): I. Subfamilies Anomochlooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pharoideae. National Museum of Natural History, Washington.

Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Bittrich, V., Wanderley, M.G.L. & Shepherd, J.G. 2001. Poaceae. In: M.G.L. Wanderley, G.J. Shepherd & A.M. Giulietti (orgs.). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo v. 1. Hucitec, São Paulo.

MMA, 2008. Lista oficial das espécies da flora brasileira ameaçadas de extinção. Instrução Normativa de setembro 2008, anexo I.

Oliveira, R.P., Longhi-Wagner, H.M. & Jardim, J.G. 2006. Diversidade e conservação de bambus herbáceos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Olyreae) da Mata Atlântica, Brasil. Seminário Nacional de Bambu: Anais. Brasília pp.62-66.

Peterson, P.M., Soreng, R.J., Davidse, G., Filgueiras, T.S. Zuloaga, F.O. & Judziewicz, E.J. 2001. Catalogue of New Word Grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae. National Museum of Natural History, Washington.

Renvoize, S.A. 1984. The grasses of Bahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Renvoize, S.A. 1988. Hatschbach's Paraná grasses. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Renvoize, S.A., Anton, A. & Beck, S. 1998. Gramineas de Bolivia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Sanchez-Ken, J.G., Clark L.G., Kellogg, E.A. & Kay, E.E. 2007. Reinstatement and emendation of subfamily Micrairoideae (Poaceae). Systematic Botany 32(1): 71-80.

Sede, S.M., Morrone, O., Giussani, L.M. & Zuloaga, F.O. 2008. Phylogenetic studies in the Paniceae (Poaceae): a realignment of section Lorea of Panicum. Systematic Botany 33(2): 284-300.

Smith, L.B., Wasshausen, D.C. & Klein, R.M. 1981- 1982. Gramíneas. In: R. Reitz (ed.). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense. Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues, Itajaí.

Soreng, R.J., Peterson, P.M., Davidse, G., Judziewicz, E.J., Zuloaga, F.O., Filgueiras, T.S. & Morrone, O. 2003. Catalogue of New Word Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Washington, National Museum of Natural History, Washington.

Soreng, R.J., Davidse, G., Peterson, P.M., Zuloaga, F.O., Judziewicz, E.J., Filgueiras, T.S. & Morrone, O. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae). Published in Contributions of the United States National Herbarium, vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. Internet Catalog of New World Grasses http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG.

Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O., Davidse, G., Filgueiras, T.S., Peterson, P.M. Soreng, R. &   Judziewicz, E. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae and Danthonioideae. National Museum of Natural History, Washington.

How to cite

Longhi-Wagner, H.M. & Oliveira, R.P. (2011). Neotropical Poaceae. In: Milliken, W., Klitgård, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Poaceae.htm.

Click images to enlarge


Agenium villosum © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil - CNPq.



Alvimia sp. © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Andropogon bicornis © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Andropogon macrothrix © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Andropogon selloanus © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Anomochloa marantoidea © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Apochloa lutzi © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Aristida jubata © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Aristida laevis © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Aristida setifolia © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Aulonemia effusa © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Axonopus aureus © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Axonopus brasiliensis © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Axonopus marginatus © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Chaetium festucoides © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Chusquea bambusoides © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feria de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Chusquea meyeriana © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Cortaderia selloana © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Cryptochloa capillata © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Echinolaena inflexa © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Eragrostis petrensis © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feria de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Eremitis parviflora © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Gynerium sagittattum © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Gymnopogon burchelii © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Homolepis isocalycia © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Hymenachne pernambucense © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Ichnanthus calvescens © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Ichnanthus leiocarpus © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Ichnanthus panicoides © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Lasiacis ligulata © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Lithachne pauciflora © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Loudetiopsis chrysothrix © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Merostachys leptophylla © R.P. Oliveira,Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Merostachys neesii © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Merostachys speciosa © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Mesosetum ferrugineum © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Olyra ciliatifolia © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Olyra humilis © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Olyra humilis © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Olyra latifolia © R.P. Oliveira,Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Orthoclada laxa © R.P. Oliveira,Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Panicum pilosum © R.P. Oliveira,Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Pariana radiciflora © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Parodiolyra micrantha © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Paspalum conjugatum © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Paspalum lineare © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Paspalum notatum © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Pharus lappulaceus © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Pharus latifolius © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Piresia goeldii © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Piresia sympodica © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Raddia portoi © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Raddia stolonifera © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Raddiella esenbeckii © R.P. Oliveira,Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Schizachyrium microstachyum © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Schizachyrium tenerum © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Setaria setosa © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Setaria sulcata © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Sporobolus aeneus © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Streptochaeta spicata © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.



Streptostachys asperifolia © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Streptostachys lanciflora © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Sucrea maculata © R.P. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil - CNPq.



Tristachya leiostachya © H.M. Longhi-Wagner, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - CNPq.