Neotropical Garryaceae

Jon L.R. Every

University of Plymouth, U.K. 

Description

Evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, decussate, simple, entire or pinnatifid, lamina leathery, simple trichomes present or rarely absent, margin entire; estipulate; petioles connate or sub-sessile. Inflorescence terminal catkins or racemes, pedunculate. Flowers unisexual, dioecious, actinomorphic, anemophilous, bracts present, rarely absent; perianth parts 2, sepaloid, fused and massively reduced or absent in pistillate flowers, with 4 free members in staminate flowers; stamens (0-)2(-4), equal in number to perianth parts, persistent, free from and alternating with perianth members, anthers dehiscing via longitudinal slits, basifixed; ovary inferior or partly inferior, syncarpous, carpels 2(-3), style 2(-3). Fruit a berry, persistent. Seeds (1-)2(-3), small.

Notes on delimitation

  • Placed as the type family in the order Garryales along with East-Asian Aucuba Thunb. and the monotypic Eucommiaceae of central China.

Distribution in the Neotropics

  • Mesophytic and semi-xerophytic environments, often forming part of the forest understorey in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central America.
  • Coastal chaparral to mountain slopes over 4,000m above sea-level.

Distinguishing characters (always present)

Key differences from similar families

Number of genera

  • 1: Garrya Lindl. with ca. 12 species.

Status

  • Native but also widely cultivated as an ornamental.

Important literature

Brummitt, R.K. 2007. Garryaceae. In: V.H. Heywood, R.K. Brummitt, A. Culham and O. Seberg (eds.). Flowering Plant Families of the World. P.152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lentz, D.L. 2004. Garryaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. P.164. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Liston, A. 2003. A New Interpretation of Floral Morphology in Garrya (Garryaceae). Taxon 52(2): 271-276.

Maas, P.J.M. & Westra, L.Y.Th. 2005. Neotropical Plant Families. 358 pp. 3rd ed. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards). The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Version 3rd March 2009. http://delta-intkey.com

How to cite

Every, J.L.R. (2010). Neotropical Garryaceae. In: Milliken, W., Klitgård, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Garryaceae.htm.