Jon L.R. Every
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Trees or shrubs occasionally climbing (Citronella D.Don.); All parts lepidote-stellate or indumentum of simple hairs. Leaves simple, alternate, distichous, margin entire, occasionally serrate with small domatia abaxially (Citronella), drying black (Dendrobangia Rusby). Inflorescence terminal or axillary, paniculate or cymose. Flowers bisexual or occasionally polygamous (Citronella), glomerulate, actinomorphic, pentamerous; calyx 5 lobed, imbricate; corolla free or gamopetalous; stamens 5, alternipetalous, ovary superior, syncarpous, unilocular, ovules 2, stigma minute, style short. Fruit drupes, exocarp lepidote-stellate becoming glabrous, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp hard. Seed 1, endosperm abundant.
Notes on delimitation
- Placed within the Aquifoliales as sister to Stemonuraceae, in turn sister to Phyllonomaceae and Helwingiaceae and Aquifoliaceae (Stevens 2008).
- Citronella and Dendrobangia were previously to be found as members of the Icacinaceae.
- See also separate family webpages for Icacinaceae and Stemonuraceae.
Distribution in the Neotropics
- Dendrobangia c. 2-3 species in Costa Rica extending to the Guianas and Brazil, Peru and Bolivia.
- Citronella c. 10 species in Costa Rica to S. Brazil, Argentina and Chile.
Number of genera
2 Neotropical genera:
Notable genera and distinguishing features
- Dendrobangia: Conspicuous peltate scales with fringed margins cover stems, leaves, inflorescences and external parts of the flowers. Dries black.
- Citronella: Large pores usually present on leaf undersurface near midrib or in vein axils.
- Native with some species of Citronella cultivated.
Pennington, T.D. 2004. Illustrated guide to the trees of Peru, p.465-67. David Hunt. Milborne Port Sherborne.
De Roon, A. C. and Mori, S. A.. 2002. Icacinaceae. In Mori, S. A. , Gracie, C. A. , Cremers, G. , de Granville, J. J. , Heald, S. V. , Hoff, M. and Mitchell, J. D. Guide to the vascular plants of Central French Guiana, part 2. Dicotyledons, Pp.358-60. The New York Botanical Garden Press, New York.
Steyermark, J. A. Berry, P. E. Yatskievych, K. and Holst, B. K. .1999. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, volume 5, p.649. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. St. Louis.
How to cite
Every, J.L.R. (2009). Neotropical Cardiopteridaceae. In: Milliken, W., Klitgård, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Cardiopteridaceae.htm.
Click images to enlarge
Domatia of Citronella mucronata © Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.
Leaf Insertion of Citronella mucronata © Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.
Habit of Citronella mucronata © Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.
Adaxial surface of Citronella mucronata © Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.
Flowers of Citronella sp. © N. T. Taylor, RBG, Kew.