Gardner’s Travels: papers to Sir W.J. Hooker and his various discourses on the vegetation in Brazil and elsewhere

Map of George Gardner's travelsGeorge Gardner sent back to England a number of letters to Sir W.J. Hooker keeping him informed about how his travels were progressing. Hooker published these in a couple of journals, keen to keep an interested public aware of how botanical explorers were faring abroad. These papers, and other notes, formed the basis of Gardner’s Travels in the Interior. His first letter sent to Hooker was never published. The letters are in the Archives of the Herbarium, Library, Art & Archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. When Gardner established himself in the post of Director of the botanic gardens in what was then Ceylon, he provided a substantial series of papers to the Royal Horticultural Society on the vegetation he had found in Brazil; the last of these was published following his death in 1849.

George Gardner's letters from Brazil [JSTOR website]

The references are simply cited in the order published, with the complete title information. Additional notes are provided, such as the publication months of some of the later papers, where this can be ascertained from the journal.

  • Gardner, G. (1838). XVII. – An account of a Journey to, and a Residence of nearly Six Months in, the Organ Mountains, with Remarks on their Vegetation. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1(2): 165–181. [This paper is based on Gardner’s letter from ‘Rio de Janeiro, July 14th, 1837.’]
  • Gardner, G. (1838). LII. Information respecting Botanical Travellers. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of Gardner’s letter from ‘Pernambuco, Jan. 24, 1838.’]. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1(3): 463–473.
  • Gardner, G. (1839). XLIII. Information respecting Botanical Travellers. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts from Gardner’s letter from ‘Maçeio, Province of Alagoas, April 5, 1838.’] Ann. Nat. Hist. 2(11): 363–365. [NB. This contains two lines of one of the stanzas from Gardner’s poem!]
  • Gardner, G. (1839). LI. Information respecting Botanical Travellers. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of Gardner’s letter from ‘Pernambuco, July 18th [1838]’]. Ann. Nat. Hist. 2(12): 455–456.
  • Gardner, G. (1839). XXXII. Information respecting Botanical Travellers. Mr. Gardner’s Journeys in Brazil. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of Gardner’s letter from ‘Villa do Icó, Sertão of the Province of Será [sic!], August 25, 1838.’] Ann. Nat. Hist. 3(17??): 250–255.
  • Gardner, G. (1839). XL. Information respecting Botanical Travellers. Mr. Gardner’s Journeys in Brazil. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of Gardner’s letter from ‘Villa do crato, Sertão of the Province of Ceará, December 5, 1838.’] Ann. Nat. Hist. 3(17): 327–336.
  • Gardner, G. (1840). Botanical information. III. (cont.) Mr Gardner’s collections. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of two of Gardner’s letters, the first from ‘City of Oeiras (Capital of Piauhy,) May 20, 1839, the second ‘City of Oeiras, (Capital of Piauhy,) July 6, 1839.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 2(9): 34–38. [34–36, 37–38].[February]
  • Gardner, G. (1840). XI. Botanical information. Intelligence respecting Mr Gardner’s journeys and collections. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of two of Gardner’s letters, the first from ‘Villa de Crato, Sertao of the Province of Ceará, Feb. 5, 1839.’, the second from Villa de Natividade, Province of Goyaz, Nov. 3, 1839.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 2(12): 194–210. [194–200, 200–209]. [Also with this copy is a short notice about the availability of the sets of Gardner’s plants from Pamplin in Soho. pp. 209–210.] [May]
  • Gardner, G. (1840). XXVII. Botanical information. [This paper contains extracts of one letter from Gardner from ‘Villa de Natividade, Province of Goyaz, Brazil, January 6th, 1840.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 2(16): 432–435. [September].
  • Gardner, G. (1840). XIII. Botanical information. Latest intelligence from Mr Gardner. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of one letter from Gardner from ‘Villa de Arroyas, (12˚3'S. Lat. 47˚3'W. Long.) Province of Goyaz, 5th May, 1840.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(19): 134–137 [December 1840!]
  • Gardner, G. (1841). XVI. Botanical information. [This paper contains extract of two letter from Gardner, the first from ‘Ciudade Diamantina, (formerly Tijuco), August 4th, 1840.’], the second from ‘Morro Velho Gold Mine, near Sabara, Province of Minas Geraes, Sept. 2d, 1840.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(20): 201–207. [201–205, 205–207] [January].
  • Gardner, G. (1841). XXIV. Botanical information. Latest intelligence from Mr Gardner. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of a letter from Gardner from ‘Rio de Janeiro, Nov. 18th, 1840.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(23): 348–350. [April].
  • Gardner, G. (1841). XXXI. Botanical information. Latest information from Mr Gardner. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts of a letter from Gardner from ‘Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 18th, 1840.’] J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(24): 441–442. [May].
  • Gardner, G. (1841). III. Botanical information. Information respecting Mr Gardner. [This ‘paper’ contains extracts from no less than five letters from Gardner from ‘Organ Mountains, 23rd March, 1841.’, ‘Rio de Janeiro, 5th May, 1841.’, ‘City of Maranham, 22d May, 1841.’, ‘Ship ‘Gipsey,’ on the passage from Maranham to Liverpool, 6th July, 1841.’ and the last letter from ‘Mersey Hotel, Liverpool, 11th July, 1841.’ J. Bot. (Hooker) 4(28): 199–206 [199–201, 201–202, 202–203, 203–205, 206][September]
  • Gardner, G. (1846). XXIX. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe. No. 1. The vegetation of Rio Janeiro. By George Gardner, Esq., F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 1: 191–198.
  • Gardner, G. (1846). XLIII. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe. No. 2. The vegetation of the Organ Mountains of Brazil. By George Gardner, Esq., F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 1: 273–285.
  • Gardner, G. (1846). XXIX. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe. No. 3. The vegetation of Bahia and Pernambuco. By George Gardner, Esq., F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 1: 286–293.
  • Gardner, G. (1846). XXIX. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe. No. 4. The vegetation of Alagoas and the Rio de Sañ [sic!] Francisco. By George Gardner, Esq., F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 1: 293–296.
  • Gardner, G. (1848). XXI. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 5. The vegetation of the Province of Ceará, in Brazil. By George Gardner, F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 3: 144–153.
  • Gardner, G. (1848). XXI. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 6. The vegetation of the Province of Piauhý, in Brazil, and the District of Rio Preto. By George Gardner, F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 3: 153–157.
  • Gardner, G. (1848). XXI. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 7. The vegetation of the Province of Goyaz, in Brazil. By George Gardner, F.L.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 3: 157–164.
  • †Gardner, G. (1849). IV. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 8. The vegetation of Ceylon. By George Gardner, F. L. S., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon. J. Hort. Soc. 4: 31–40. [apparently this was taken from Ribeira’s History of Ceylon] [judging from a footnote on p. 35 Gardner wrote this paper in 1847]

For the sake of completeness the following papers complete this series:

  • Waller Clifton, M (1849). XXII. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 9. Climate of Australind [sic!], Western Australia. An extract from a letter to the Vice-Secretary from M. Waller Clifton, Esq., dated 25 September, 1848. J. Hort. Soc. 4: 203–205.
  • Reinwardt, C. G. C. (1849). XXVI. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 10. The vegetation of the Indian Archipelago. By Dr C. G. C. Reinwardt, Professor of Chemistry, Botany, and Natural History of the University of Leyden. J. Hort. Soc. 4: 227–236 [freely translated and abridged from German]
  • Weddell, H. A. (1851). XVI. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 11. The vegetation of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. By H. A. Wedell, M. D. J. Hort. Soc. 6: 160–199. [apparently translated from French]
  • Thomson, T. (1851). XXII. Contributions to a history of the relation between climate and vegetation in various parts of the Globe: No. 12. Sketch of the climate and vegetation of the Himalaya. By Thomas Thomson, M.D., Assistant Surgeon in the H. E. I. C. Service, Bengal Establishment. J. Hort. Soc. 6: 245–258.