Key to the genera of the Senecioneae

1.

Plants dioecious or occasionally gynodioecious; plants either functionally male (ovaries sterile) or functionally female (abortive anthers); individual capitula exclusively homogamous; style arm apices rounded, dorsally papillose

Chersodoma

 

Plants monoecious; plants with some hermaphrodite florets; capitula homogamous (discoid) or heterogamous (disciform or radiate); style arms apically truncate or obtuse to conical, apically with ring of penicillate collecting hairs, with or without a central projection of penicillate papillae

2

2. (1)

Style arms apically truncate or obtuse with a ring of penicillate collecting hairs, apical projection absent

3

 

Style arms apically conical, convex or triangular with central penicillate projection and a ring of collecting hairs

13

3. (2)

Annual herbs; leaves alternate

4

 

Perennial suffrutescent herbs, shrubs or small trees; leaves alternate or opposite

5

4. (3)

Capitula heterogamous, calyculate; marginal florets female, corollas filiform, yellow, whitish or pinkish

Erechtites

 

Capitula homogamous with hermaphrodite florets, or heterogamous with marginal florets female, calyculus reduced to a few bracts or absent; corollas strictly yellow

Senecio p.p.

5. (3)

Rhizomatous or caespitose herbs; leaves usually rosulate, rarely cauline; phyllaries fused at least to midpoint; marginal florets rayed (when present), yellow, violet or purple

6

 

Phyllaries free to base

8

6. (5)

Leaves numerous with at least leaf bases covering rhizome for c. 10 cm below inflorescence or apices; plants forming tightly packed or loose hummocks or mats; leaves of outer edge of more closely compressed plants with distal few mm green, other leaves brown, blackish or whitish

Xenophyllum

 

Leaves few and restricted near apices of rhizomes or just below capitula; plants forming rosettes in small groups or individually; leaves completely green

7

7. (6)

Leaves and involucre glabrous; style arm apices with or without few papillae but never with long multicellular hairs

Werneria

 

Leaves and involucre covered with long (3-5 mm) strigose hairs; style arm apices with long multicellular hairs

Misbrookea

8. (5)

Anther bases rounded or obtuse; leaves alternate; usually herbs, subshrubs or shrubs; hermaphrodite florets with short-lobed corollas; ray limbs (when present) usually yellow, violet or purple, rarely white

9

 

Anther bases sagittate or tailed; trees, shrubs or woody vines

12

9. (8)

Herbs, densely woolly; capitula usually large, solitary or few, nodding, discoid; phyllaries usually multiseriate

Culcitium

 

Herbs, subshrubs, small shrubs or scandent shrublets, glabrous or variously pubescent but not woolly; capitula relatively small to medium, usually few to many, erect, discoid, disciform or radiate; phyllaries uniseriate

10

10. (9)

Herbs, subshrubs or small shrubs; florets usually many; phyllaries >5; corollas usually short-lobed

Senecio

 

Suffrutescent herbs, scandent shrublets or trees; florets few (5); phyllaries 5; corolla lobes long or short

11

11. (10)

Capitula discoid; corolla lobes long; style arm apices penicillate; corollas white

Paracalia

 

Capitula radiate; disc corolla lobes short; style arms apices truncate to obtusely convex; corollas yellow

Dendrophorbium

12. (8)

Leaves glabrous or with simple hairs; style branches truncate or obtuse; stigmatic areas clearly separated; achenes 5- angled or ribbed

Pentacalia

 

Leaves pubescent, hairs stellate or irregularly branched; style branches acute to acuminate; stigmatic areas continuous or barely separated; achenes 8-10-ribbed

Nordenstamia

13. (2)

Annual herbs; leaves alternate; capitula homogamous, ecalyculate; corollas orange-red to pink

Emilia

 

Perennial herbs or woody vines or shrubs; leaves alternate or opposite; capitula homogamous or heterogamous, calyculate; corollas orange, yellow or white, rarely purple

14

14. (13)

Hermaphrodite florets corollas narrowly tubular, throats gradually funnelform

Pseudogynoxys

 

Hermaphrodite florets corollas campanulate or tubular, throat distinct from tube

15

15. (14)

Suffrutescent climbers; leaves alternate or opposite, membranaceous; capitula discoid; corollas yellow or greenish-yellow phyllaries (12-)16-21; 30-100 (-140) florets per capitulum

Aetheolaena

 

Plants woody shrubs or trees; leaves opposite, coriaceous; capitula radiate or discoid; corollas yellow to white; phyllaries 8; ray florets (1-3)4-8, hermaphrodite florets 8-24

Gynoxys