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Viguiera Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): (1818).

Helianthus L. subgen. Leighia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 25: 435 (1822). Note: Several authors (Blake, 1918; Saenz, 1979; Robinson & Moore, 2004, Index Nominum Genericorum) incorrectly attribute this reference as the place of publication of the genus Leighia. Cassini was quite specific in stating the rank at which it was recognized (Cest un sous-genre, que nous proposons dtablir dans le genre Helianthus; ...), something repeated in the Dictionnaire on p. 437 where all of the subgenera were listed. The subgeneric description Cassini provided was based on the entity he called ''Leighia elegans, H. Cass., strictly a species of Helianthus! The Index Nominum Genericorum entry is incorrect in stating that firstly, this was a generic description and, secondly that the lectotype is Leighia bicolor Cass. (following vide Pfeiffer, Nom. 2: 56. 1874), cited as a nom. illegit. (having cited Helianthus angustifolius L. in synonymy). Robinson & Moore (2004) cited the type as Helianthus linearis Cav., which is incorrect as Cassini had clearly expressed doubt that this was conspecific with his Leighia elegans. Type: Helianthus (Leighia) elegans Cass. = Viguiera linearis (Cav.) Sch.Bip. ex Hemsl.

Leighia (Cass.) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 38: 17 (1825), nom. illegit., non Leighia Scop. (1777). Note: When raised to generic rank it immediately became a later homonym of Scopolis Leighia, a substitute name for Kahiria Forssk.

Type: Viguiera helianthoides Kunth = Viguiera dentata (Cav.) Spreng.

References

Blake, S. F. (1918). A revision of the genus Viguiera. Contr. Gray Herb., ser. 2, 54: 1205.

Magenta, M. (2006). Viguiera Kunth (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) na Amrica do Sul e sistem tica das espcies do Brasil. Unpublished PhD thesis, Universidade de S o Paulo.

Robinson, H. (1972). Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). I. A new species of Rhysolepis. Phytologia 24(3): 209210.

Robinson, H. (1977). Studies in the Heliantheae. VIII. Notes on genus and species limits in the genus Viguiera. Phytologia 36(3): 201215.

Robinson, H. & A. J. Moore. (2004). New species and new combinations in Rhysolepis (Heliantheae: Asteraceae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3):437460.

Saenz, A. A. (1979). El gnero Viguiera (Compositae) en la Argentina. Darwiniana 22(13): 45--66.

Note: Robinson & Moores (2004) transfer of many species of Viguiera to Rhysolepis is not accepted in this account.

*Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 222 (1884).

?Rudbeckia densifolia Sm., in Rees, Encycl. : 30 (1819). Type: not cited.

Leighia anchusifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 580 (1836). Type: K in Brasiliae prov. Rio-Grande. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. ex h. Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 875.) Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC (fragments of leaf and capitula).

Leighia dissitifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 581 (1836). Type: K? in brasiliae prov. Rio-Grande. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. ex h. Mus. imp. Bras. n. 881.). Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC.

Leighia lomatoneura DC., Prodr. 5: 581 (1836). Type: KL in Brasiliae prov. Rio-Grande. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. ex h. Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 878.) Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC (leaf fragments).

Leighia immarginata DC., Prodr. 5: 581 (1836). Type: K in Brasiliae prov. Rio-Grande. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. ex h. Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 1052.) Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC (leaf fragments).

Leighia stenophylla Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(No. 22): 313 (1841). Types: Buenos Ayres and Monte Video; Tweedie, (n. 870 and 875). Syntypes: K.

Leighia baldwiniana Nutt., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., ser. 2, 7: 365 (1841). Type: ... collected in some parts of South America, by the late indefatigable Doctor Baldwin. Holotype: ?BM.

Viguiera stenophylla (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 193 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 193 (1879).

Helianthus angustifolius Spreng. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 221 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn. (sub. V. stenophylla (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.)

Helianthus montevidensis Spreng. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 221 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn. (sub. V. stenophylla (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

Viguiera dissitifolia (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 225 (1884).

Tridens varius Pohl ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 225 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn. (sub V. dissitifolia (DC.) Baker)

Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker var. genuina S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 156 (1918).

Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker var. immarginata (DC.) S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 157 (1918).

Viguiera immarginata (DC.) Herter, Revista Sudamer. Bot. 7(6/8): 236 (1943).

Rhysolepis anchusifolia (DC.) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 425 (2004).

Argentina, Bolivia (Tarija), Brazil, Uruguay. Foster (1958: 222) noted the species for Bolivia (based on a Fries 1203, from Tarija), yet Blake (1918: 156157) noted only an Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay distribution, which was only modified slightly by Magenta (2006) in her unpublished thesis with the addition of Paraguay; Magenta (2006) did not mention the Fries collection.

Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker var. genuina S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 156 (1918) = Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker

Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker var. immarginata (DC.) S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 157 (1918) = Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker

*Viguiera australis S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 148 (1918). Type: BOLIVIA: cotana at Illimani, 2450 m., Nov. 1911, Buchtien 297. As Type coll.: B.M., G., Mo. [NY] Lectotype: to be selected. Note: There is an unnumbered Buchtien collection, but with the same locality and date that is most probably an isosyntype/isolectotype.

Helianthus floribundus E. Watson, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 9: 405 (1929). Type: K. Fiebrig 2758, San Luis, Bolivia. Altitude 2,000 m. Holotype: B.

Rhysolepis australis (S. F. Blake) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 425 (2004).

Bolivia (La Paz), Chile. Robinson & Moore (2004: 425) reported this species only from Chile (but obviously not including Helianthus floribundus E. Watson); Magenta (2006) clearly recorded it for Bolivia.

Other paratypes cited by Blake include: do. Buchtien 3292 (US); Isla Titicaca, Lake Titicaca, 3840 m., March 1910, Buchtien 3064 (US); near La Paz, 3050 m., Rusby 1689 (G, US); without definite locality, Bridges (K).

Viguiera bishopii H. Rob. Phytologia, 45(6): 458 (1980). Type: BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: 5 kms from Parotani, on road to Oruro. 9000 ft. Shrub to 1 m tall, flowers yellow. 2 Feb. 1978. R. M. King & L. E. Bishop 7574. Holotype: US.

Rhysolepis bishopii (H. Rob.) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 426 (2004).

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Viguiera cabrerae H. Rob., Phytologia 36(3): 207 (1977) = Hymenostephium debile (Cabrera) Cabrera

Viguiera calva (Sch.Bip.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19(5): 149 (1892), nom. illegit. = Viguiera pazensis Rudby.

Viguiera coraniana A. A. Saenz, Parodiana, 5(1): 26 (1987)[1988]. Type: BOLIVIA. Dep. Cochabamba, Prov. Chapare, Loc. Corani; leg. A. Krapovickas 8671, 19-I-1958. Holotype: LIL (460475).

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Viguiera discoidea (Griseb.) S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 157 (1918) = Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

Viguiera dissitifolia (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 225 (1884) = Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker

Viguiera emaciata (H. Rob. & A. J. Moore) D. J. N. Hind, Kew Bull. 63(3): 516 (2008)[Jan 2009].

Rhysolepis emaciata H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 434 (2004). Type: Bolivia, Cochabamba: 10 NE; 2465 m; Campero, pajonal de Elyonurus tripsacoides, 2 May 1999, Antezana 1276. Holotype: US; isotype: MO.

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Viguiera floribunda Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 401 (1848) = Aspilia floribunda (Gardner) Baker

*Viguiera fusiformis S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 145 (1918). Type: BOLIVIA: fields, neighborhood of Sorata, near Munaypata, Prov. Larecaja, 2650 m., Jan.-March 1859, Mandon 49. As Type coll.: BM, G, K.; [isotypes: GH, NY 2, S.] Lectotype: to be selected.

Rhysolepis fusiformis (S. F. Blake) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 426 (2004).

Bolivia (La Paz).

*Viguiera glutinosa Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4(3): 211 (1895) = Flourensia heterolepis S. F. Blake

Viguiera gracilis Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 402 (1848) = Aspilia floribunda (Gardner) Baker

Viguiera immarginata (DC.) Herter, Revista Sudamer. Bot. 7(6/8): 236 (1943) = Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker

*Viguiera lanceolata Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 149 (1892). Type: [Bolivia:] Yungas, 4,000 ft. ([Rusby] 2140). Holotype: NY (277970).

*Viguiera mandonii Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 35).

*Viguiera mandonii Sch.Bip. ex Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 60 (1893). Types: [Bolivia:] Vic. La Paz, 10,000ft., 1890 ([Bang] 382). = Mandon 35, not Rusby 1683 nor 1684. Syntypes: NY (there are two specimens of Bang 382 and three of Mandon 35 in NY); isosyntypes: K. Isosyntype (Bang 382): US. Note: Some have taken Mandon 35 as a paratype, but Iwould argue that it is a syntype as Rusby made no clear declaration that Bang 382 was the type collection.

Viguiera mandonii Sch.Bip. ex Klatt, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 9: 361 (1894). nom. illegit. superfl. (based on Mandon 35).

Helianthus szyszylowiczii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 491 (1905). Type: Peruvia: crescit prope Callacate (J.[elski] n. 732, m. Majo 1879). Holotype: B.

Rhysolepis lanceolata (Britton) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 429 (2004).

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), Peru.

*Viguiera macrorhiza Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 225 (1884). Types: Habitat in Paraguay, in campis ad Caaguazu: Balansa n. 848!, 1139! Syntypes: K; isosyntype (Balansa 848): G, NY, P. Lectotype: to be selected.

Viguiera hassleriana Chod., Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, 3(8): 724 (1903). Types: Suffrutex 0,3-0,8, petala lutea, in campo pr. flumen Tapiraguay, Aug., [Hassler] n. 4306; id. in campo pr. fl. Carimbatay, Sept., [Hassler] n. 4578. Syntypes: BM, G.

Viguiera macrorhiza Baker var. hassleriana (Chod.) Hassler, Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 269 (1916).

Bolivia (?), Brazil, Paraguay.

*Viguiera mandonii Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. = Viguiera lanceolata Britton

*Viguiera mandonii Sch.Bip. ex Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 60 (1893) = Viguiera lanceolata Britton

Viguiera mandonii Sch.Bip. ex Klatt, Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 9: 361 (1894). nom. illegit. superfl. = Viguiera lanceolata Britton

Viguiera mollis Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19(): (1874); Pl. Lorentz. : 136 (1874) = Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

Viguiera oligodonta S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 146 (1918) = Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

*Viguiera pazensis Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 59 (1893). Types: [Bolivia:] Vic. La Paz, 10,000 ft., 1889 [Bang] (44). = Rusby 1683, 1684 and 2714. Isosyntype (Bang 44): GH, NY, US, Z (000004098). Note: Material of the Bang 44 isosyntype in K is of two taxa, one determined by Blake as V. pazensis, the other is queried as V. punensis. Isosyntype material of this collection in NY appears to be of one taxon.

Sanvitalia helianthoides Rich. ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2190 (1803). Type: Habitat in Peru. (v.s.). Holotype: B-W (16312). Note: the sheet in B-W has (Richard) written at the bottom of it.

Helianthus procumbens Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 475 (1807), nom. illegit. pro S. helianthoides Rich. ex Willd.

Helianthus calvus Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 34)

Helianthus atacamensis Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Secc. 2, Bot. 8: 48 (1891). Type: Prope Atacama lectus. [Philippi, 1885]. Holotype: SGO.

Viguiera calva (Sch.Bip.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19(5): 149 (1892), nom. illegit. (based on both Mandon 34 and Rusby 1690). Note: Viguiera calva Benth. & Hook.f. is listed in Index Kewensis but was clearly neither described nor combined in Genera Plantarum. It was based on Helianthus calvus Sch.Bip. a nom. nud. (based on a Mandon collection, n. 34).

*Viguiera pflanzii Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 226 (1913). Types: Bolivien: Pacla-La Paz, Ackerrain, 3700 m . M. (K. Pflanz n. 48. Im Juni 1909 bl hend); Huancapampa, 3650, geht bis 3800 m . M., Acker K. Pflanz n. 372. Im April 1910 bl hend). Syntypes: B.

Flourensia atacamensis (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 112: 146 (1903).

Viguiera punensis S. F. Blake, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beib. 119(3): 48 (1916). Type: Peru: Dept. Puno, Azangaro, abundant, rocky limestone meadows, alt. 4000 m. (Weberbauer n. 464).

*Encelia soratensis Rusby, Descr. New Sp. S. Amer. Pl. : 154 (1920). Type: In cultivated fields, Sorata, Bolivia, 7500 feet. October, 1902. (R.S.Williams, No. 1546.). Holotype: NY.

Viguiera procumbens (Pers.) S. F. Blake, Contr. US Natl. Herb. 26: 253 (1930).

Rhysolepis helianthoides (Rich.) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 427 (2004).

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija), Chile, Ecuador, Peru.

Note: Robinson & Moores comments (2004: 427) have synonymized several names under Rhysolepis helianthoides (L. Rich.) A. J. Moore & H. Rob.; at the species level the earliest name in Viguiera is V. pazensis under which entry they appear here. Magenta (2006) in the discussion of the distribution of this extra-Brazilian taxon referred to it as V. procumbens.

*Viguiera pflanzii Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 226 (1913) = Viguiera pazensis Rusby

Viguiera procumbens (Pers.) S. F. Blake, Contr. US Natl. Herb. 26: 253 (1930) = Viguiera pazensis Rusby

Viguiera punensis S. F. Blake, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54, Beib. 119(3): 48 (1916) = Viguiera pazensis Rusby

Viguiera ramosissima Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 402 (1848) = Aspilia floribunda (Gardner) Baker

*Viguiera retroflexa S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 146 (1918). Type: BOLIVIA: Tarija, 1220 m., March 1864, Pearce. As Type coll.: BM, K, tracing and fragm. G., plus the paratype: without definite locality Bridges (K). Syntypes: K. Note: the Pearce syntype at K had a leaf and capitulum presented to Blake and is in GH.

Rhysolepis retroflexa (S. F. Blake) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 431 (2004).

Argentina, Bolivia (Tarija).

Viguiera stenophylla (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 193 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 193 (1879) = Viguiera anchusifolia (DC.) Baker

Viguiera stenophylla (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. var. discoidea Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 193 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 193 (1879) = Viguiera tucamanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

Viguiera tucamanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 183 (1874); Pl. Lorentz.: 136 (1874).

Leighia tucumanensis Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker): 3(No. 22): 314 (1841). Type: [Argentina: ] [In woods] Near Tucuman; Tweedie, (n. 1203.). Holotype: K.

Viguiera mollis Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19(): (1874); Pl. Lorentz. : 136 (1874) = Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. Note: Viguiera mollis was reported for Bolivia by Fries, based on Fries 1238, although not recorded by Foster (1958). Magenta (2006: 322) suggested that V. mollis was an example of the Yungas element of the genus and might well be a synonym of V. tucumanensis.

Viguiera stenophylla (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. var. discoidea Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 193 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 193 (1879). Type: J. Syntypes: Lorentz & Hieronymus 727 & 775, GOET.

Viguiera oligodonta S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 146 (1918). Type: ARGENTINA: in woods, St. Xavier, Tucuman, Tweedie 1202. Holotype: K; isotype: G (fragm.).

Viguiera discoidea (Griseb.) S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 157 (1918).

Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. var. discoidea (Griseb.) Cabrera, Fl. Prov. Jujuy, INTA, 13(10): 371 (1978).

Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. var. oligodonta (S. F. Blake) Cabrera, Fl. Prov. Jujuy, INTA, 13(10): 371 (1978).

Rhysolepis tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 432 (2004).

Argentina, Bolivia (?).

Robinson & Moore (2004) only recorded this species from Argentina, but Mara Magenta in her thesis recorded the species and var. discoidea (here lumped together) for Bolivia. Cabrera (1978: 371372) recorded only var. oligodonta from Argentina and Bolivia. The taxons distribution in Bolivia was not stated.

Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. var. discoidea (Griseb.) Cabrera, Fl. Prov. Jujuy, INTA, 13(10): 371 (1978) = Viguiera tucamanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

Viguiera tucumanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. var. oligodonta (S. F. Blake) Cabrera, Fl. Prov. Jujuy, INTA, 13(10): 371 (1978) = Viguiera tucamanensis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb.

Viguiera weddellii Sch.Bip. ex S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 54: 126 (1918). Type: BRAZIL: between Goyaz anda Cujaba, Nov.-Dec. 1844, Weddell 2911. Holotype: P.

Rhysolepis weddellii (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) H. Rob. & A. J. Moore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 117(3): 432 (2004).

Bolivia (?), Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso).