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Symphyotrichum Nees, Gen. Sp. Aster. : 135 (1832)[1833]

Virgaria Raf. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 243 (1836), nom. nud. pro syn.

Tripolium Nees sect. Oxytripolium DC., Prodr. 5: 253 (1836). Lectotype (selected by Jones, 1980): Aster tenuifolius L. =

Aglotoma Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 44 (1836)[1837]. Type: based on Aster multiflorus Ait., but no combination made in Aglotoma.

Mesoligus Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 44 (1836)[1837]. Type: Aster subulatus Michx. = Mesoligus subulatus (Michx.) Raf. = Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) G. L. Nesom

Virgulus Raf., Fl. Tellur : 46 (1836)[1837]. Type: based on Aster concolor L., but no combination made in Virgulus. Lectotype (selected by Reveal & Keener, 1981: 649): Virgulus concolor (L.) J. L. Reveal & C. S. Keener

Fimbristima Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 46 (1836)[1837]. Lectotype (selected by Neson, 1994: 271): Aster squamatus (Spreng.) Hieron. = Fimbristima squamata (Spreng.) Raf. = Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) G. L. Nesom

Tripolium Nees subgen. Astropolium Nutt., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 2(7): 295 (1840). Lectotype (selected by Sundberg, 1986:): Aster tenuifolius L.

Aster L. subgen. Oxytripolium (DC.) Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 161 (1841).

Aster L. sect. Conyzopsis Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 162 (1841). Type: not stated.

Brachyactis Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 2: 495 (1845). Type: Brachyactis ciliata (Ledeb.) Ledeb. = Symphyotrichum ciliatum (Ledeb.) G. L. Nesom

Aster L. sect. Heterastrum Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 273 (1873). Lectotype (selected by Nesom, 1994: 270): Aster vahlii Gaudich.

Aster L. subgen. Conyzopsis (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 16: 99 (1880).

Lasallea Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 5 (1903). Type: not stated.

Conyzanthus Tamasch., Fl. U.R.S.S. 24: 583 (1959). Type: Aster squamatus (Spreng.) Hieron. = Conyzanthus squamatus (Spreng.) Tamamsch. = Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) G. L. Nesom

Aster L. subgen. Virgulus (Raf.) A.G. Jones, Brittonia 32(2): 233 (1980).

Aster L. subgen. Symphyotrichum (Nees) A.G. Jones, Brittonia 32(2): 234 (1980).

Aster L. subgen. Ascendentes (Rydb.) Semple, Phytologia 58(7): 430 (1985), based on Aster sp. group Ascendentes Rydb.

Virgulaster Semple, Phytologia 58(7): 430 (1985). Type: Aster ascendens Lindl. = Virgulasater ascendens (Lindl.) Semple

Type: Symphyotrichum unctuosum Nees (= ?Symphyotrichum novi-belgi (L.) G. L. Nesom)

Note: Neson (2005) was of the opinion that the lumping proposed by Sundberg (2004) was unacceptable and maintained Sundbergs subspecies as distinct species, a treatment accepted here.

References

Nesom, G. L. (1994). Review of the taxonomy of Aster sensu lato (Asteraceae: Astereae), emphasizing the New World species. Phytologia 77(3): 141297.

Nesom, G. L. (2000). Generic conspectus of the tribe Astereae (Asteraceae) in North America, Central America, the Antilles and Hawaii. Sida, Bot. Misc. 20: 1100.

Nesom, G. L. (2005). Taxonomy of the Symphyotrichum (Aster) subulatum group and Symphyotrichum (Aster) tenuifolium (Asteraceae: Astereae). Sida 21(4): 21252140.

Reveal, J. L. & C. S. Keener. (1981). Virgulus Raf. (1837), an earlier name for Lasallea Greene (1903) (Asteraceae). TAXON 30(3): 648-651.

Sundberg, S. D. (2004). New combinations in North American Symphyotrichum subgenus Astropolium (Asteraceae: Astereae). Sida 21(2): 903910.

Symphyotrichum graminifolium (Spreng.) G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 77(3): 283 (Sept. 1994)[1995].

Conyza graminifolia Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 515 (1826). Type: [Uruguay:] Monte Video. Sello. Holotype: P.

*Aster divaricatus (Nutt.) Torrey & A. Gray var. graminifolius (Spreng.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 22 (1882).

Aster squamatus (Spreng.) Hieron. var. graminifolius (Spreng.) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 19 (1900*). [*Note: See Reference section concerning problem with date of publication]

Conyzanthus graminifolius (Spreng.) Tamamsch., Fl. URSS 25: 186 (1959).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Uruguay. Note: Listed by Foster (1958: 203), its presence in Bolivia was based on Rusby 1712, although Britton commented that he was adopting the name sensu Baker and that the material was different from that in North America (of Aster divaricatus).

Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 77(3): 292 (1994)[1995].

Conyza squamata Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 515 (1826). Type: Monte Video. Sello.

Erigeron semiamplexicaule Meyen, Reise um die Erde 1: 311 (1834). Type: not stated. [Walper in Observat. Bot. : 260 (1843) cited Chile: Cordillera de S. Fernando. (v.s.)] Holotype: B.

Baccharis asteroides Bertero ex Colla, Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino 38(45): 14 (1835). Type: Habitat Chili in pascuis Rancagua. Holotype: TO.

Tripolium ? subulatum (Michx.) Nees ***** [symbols of unspecified rank] brasilianum DC., Prodr. 5: 254 (1836), nom. inval.

Tripolium conspicuum Lindl. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 254 (1836). Types: (Lindl. obs. mss. 1835) ... Baccharis asteroides Bert.! n. 83 et 828 [sic! 818 on label!], in pascuis et hortis circa Rancagua et Valparaiso lecta. (v.s.). Syntypes: G-DC. Note: In addition to the two Bertero collections there is a Gaudichaud collection which is unnumbered and unlocalized.

Conyza berteroana Phil., Linnaea 28: 737 (1836). Types: Cl. Bertero specimina duo in herb. chil. reliquit, hoc retulo: Baccharis asteroides Bert., a genere differt, an Aster? ad fossas, locis aquosis, inque hortis ruderibusque Bancaquae, ... Pizarro (1960: 138) cited only Se halla en Rancagua, with only one specimen in SGO 65048.

Aster subtropicos Morong, Ann. New York. Acad. Sci. 7: 139 (1893). Type: [Paraguay:] Near Asuncion ([Morong] 620). March. Holotype: NY.

Aster asteroides (Colla) Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4(3): 213 (1893).

Tripolium moelleri Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 87: 403 (1894). Type: In praedio Renaico dicto prov. Biobio amicissimi doctoris Petri Mller locis humidis inveni. [Lo he encontrado en el fundo Renaico, de la provincia de B o-Bo, de mi gran amigo el Dr. Pedro M ller, en lugares hmedos. 44749, 65044, 71233 - SGO. Pizarro, 1960: 164.]

Tripolium oliganthum Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 87: 403 (1894). Type: Habitat in litore prope Lebu, et prope Valdivia; locis humidis, porro ad lacum Lacar et Huechulafquen (Otto Philippi).

Erigeron depile Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 87: 417 (1894). Type: .'Specimen unicum Martio 1886 in alveo rivuli prov. OHiggins, ad Marcel inveni. [He hallado un solo ejemplar en marzo de 1886 en el lecho de un ro de la provincia de OHiggins, en Marcel (Mansel).'' 65133 - SGO. Pizarro, 1960: 140]

Aster bangii Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4(3): 213 (1895), as nom. nov. pro. Tripolium conspicuum Lindl. ex DC.

Aster squamatus (Spreng.) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 19 (1900*). [*Note: See Reference section concerning problem with date of publication]

Aster moelleri (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 109: 338 (1901).

*Aster exilis Elliott f. subalpinus R. E. Fr., Ark. Bot. 5(13): 12 (1906). Type: [Bolivia:] Junaca pr. Tarija, loco humido ad ripam rivuli iin regione subalpina, ca. 2500 m. s. m. [28/202; Fr[ies]. 1316]. Holotype: S.

Aster barcinonensis Sennen, Bull. Gogr. Bot. 24(Nos. 295-297): 242 (1914). Type: [Spain:] Catalogne: Prat de Llobregat, dans les terrains sal s ou saumtres, entre la Ricarda et la mer. [Fr re Sennen].

Conyzanthus squamatus (Spreng.) Tamamsch., Fl. U. R. S. S. 25: 186 (1959).

Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) G. L. Nesom, var. squamatum (Spreng.) S. D. Sundb., Sida 21(2): 908 (2004).

According to Nesom (2005: 2135) Native to South America and apparently widely distributed there; rare in California and the southeastern USA . Naturalized in Australia, Japan, Iraq, Africa, France and probably other regions of the world. Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Note: It is quite probable that the reference to Aster exilis Ell. in Foster (1958: 203) should be as Aster exilis sensu auctt., non Ell., and is referrable to Symphyotrichum squamatum; it may also me referrable to S. graminifolium.

Mata negra, Rama negra, Uogoi (Freire et al., 2006).

Symphyotrichum vahlii (Gaudich.) G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 77(3): 294 (1994).

Erigeron vahlii Gaudich., Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris 5: 103 (1825). Type: not cited, except that in the table above the description the species is one of a few collected in D troit de Magellan, and the introduction to the paper indicates that Gaudichaud collected the material on les Melouines (= Falkland Islands). Holotype: P.

*Aster vahlii (Gaudich.) Hook. & Arn., Compannion Bot. Mag.2: 49 (1836).

Tripolium tenuifolium Phil., Anales. Univ. Chile 87: 404 (1894). Type: Ad lacum Ranco januario 1887 ab O. Philippi lectum est. Pizzaro (1960: 164) cited sheets 65041 and 44748 in SGO.

Aster vahlii (Gaudich.) Hook. & Arn. var. tenuifolius (Phil.) Cabrera, Revista Chil. Hist. Nat. 40: 227 (1936).

Oritrophium vahlii (Gaudich.) Cuatrec., Webbia 24: 89 (1969).

Symphyotrichum vahlii (Gaudich.) G. L. Nesom var. tenuifolium (Phil.) G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 77(3): 294 (1994)

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba), Chile. Note: Foster (1958: 203) cited Aster vahlii for Bolivia based on Bang 940 and Rusby 2720, although Rusby (1893: 54) noted further study was needed.

Symphyotrichum vahlii (Gaudich.) G. L. Nesom var. tenuifolium (Phil.) G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 77(3): 294 (1994) = Symphyotrichum vahlii (Gaudich.) G. L. Nesom