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Struchium P.Br., Civ. Nat. Jamaica : 312, t. 34 (1756).

Athenaea Adans., Fam. 2: 121 (1763), non Sendtn. [SOLANACEAE], nom. cons.

Sparganophorus Vaill. ex Crantz, Inst. 1: 261 (1873). Type: Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz, nom. illegit. = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Type: Struchium herbaceum P. Browne ex J. St. Hil., Ethulia struchium Sw. = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Struchium africanum P. Beauv., Fl. Owar. 1: 81, t. 48 (1804) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Struchium americanum Poir., Encycl. 7: 475 (1806) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Struchium herbaceum P. Browne ex J. St. Hil., Expos. Fam. 1: 406 (1805) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 366 (1891).

Ethulia sparganophora L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2 :1171 (1763). Type: Habitat in India. Lectotype (selected by Hind in Jarvis & Turland, 1998: 360): [icon] Sparganophoros Virgae aureae folio, floribus w foliorum alis, absque pediculis in Vaillant in Mm. Acad. Roy. Sci. Paris 1719: 309, t. 20, f. 35 (1719). Epitype (selected by Hind in Jarvis & Turland, 1998: 360): Guadeloupe. Basse-Terre, near Grand Etang, 400-425 m, 27 Nov 1950, Proctor 20182'', BM-000576316. See augmented explanation for these choices in Jarvis, 2007: 507.

Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz, Inst.1: 261 (1766), nom. illegit. superfl., based on Ethulia sparganophora L.

Struchium herbaceum P. Browne ex J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1(2): 406 (Feb.Apr. 1805). Type: Habitat la Jamaque.

Struchium africanum P. Beauv., Fl. Owar. 1(5): 81, t. 48 (May 1805). Type: ''Obs. Sur les bords du fleuve Formose, royaume dOware.

Ethulia struchium Sw., Fl. Ind. Occ. 3: 1297 (1806). Type: Provenit in subhumidis, adque ripas graminosis fluviorum Jamaicae. 0. Holotype: ?

Sparganophorus fasciatus Lam. ex Poir., Encycl. 7: 302 (1806), nom. illegit. superfl. based on Ethulia sparganophora L.

Struchium americanum Poir., Encycl. 7: 475 (1806), nom. illegit. superfl. based on Ethulia struchium Sw.

Sparganophorus struchium Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 398 (1807). Type: Hab. in Jamaicae subhumidis. Holotype: ?

Sparganophorus fasciculatus Steud., Nom. Bot. 1: 801 (1821), orth. var. of Sparganophorus fasciatus Lam. ex Poir.

Sparganophorus africanus (P.Beauv.) Steud., Nom. Bot. 1: 801 (1821).

Sparganophorus fuscatus Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 614 (1841), orth. var. of Sparganophorus fsciatus Lam. ex Poir.

Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz var. longifolius Griseb., Cat. Pl. Cub. : 143 (1866). Type: [Cuba:] Wr[ight]. 2783. Holotype: GOET; isotype: K.

Sparganophorus sparganophora (L.) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 43(2): 272 (1988), comb. illegit.

Belize, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Cuba, India, Jamaica, Panama. Pantropical.

Noivinha (Cabrera & Klein, 1980).