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Sonchus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) & Gen. Pl. (1754).

Lectotype (selected by Britton & Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U. S., ed. 2, 3: 316, 1913): Sonchus oleraceus L.

Key to species

Upper leaves acute with acute auricles; achenes slightly compressed, wingless, usually rugose; ligules usually a pale yellowS. oleraceus

Upper leaves with rounded auricles; achenes strongly compressed, winged, usually smooth; ligules usually a golden yellowS. asper

Sonchus agrestis Swartz, Prodr. : 110 (1788) = Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. cacalioides (Fisch. ex Spreng.) Griseb.

*Sonchus asper (L.) Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphin. 3: 158 (1789).

Sonchus oleraceus L. var. asper L., Sp. Pl. : 794 (1753). Type: not cited. Lectotype (selected by Boulos in Jarvis & Turland, 1998: 368): Herb. Burser VI: 14 (UPS).

Argentina, Bolivia (?), Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, etc. Native of Europe. Widespread as a weed in temperate and cool-temperate regions throughout the world.

Cerraja (Freire et al., 2006).

Sonchus brasiliensis Meyen & Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 293 (1843) = Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. cacalioides (Fisch. ex Spreng.) Griseb.

Sonchus erythropappus Meyen & Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes.-Leop. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 293 (1843) = Erechtites valerianifolia (Wolf) DC. var. valerianifolia

Sonchus occidentalis Spreng., Neue Entdeck. 2: 143 (1821) = Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. cacalioides (Fisch. ex Spreng.) Griseb.

*Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. Pl. : 794 (1753). Type: Habitat in Europae cultis. 0. Lectotype (selected by Boulos, Bot. Not. 126: 174, 1973): Herb. Linn. No. 949.6 (LINN).

Sonchus oleraceus L. var. laevis L., Sp. Pl.: 794 (1753). Type: Lectotype (selected by Boulos in Jarvis & Turland, 1998: 368): Herb. Burser VI: 16, UPS.

A native of Europe and north Africa, now a pantropical weed. Widespread in tropical Africa, etc. Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Cerraja (Freire et al., 2006).

Sonchus oleraceus L. var. asper L., Sp. Pl. : 794 (1753) = Sonchus asper (L.) Vill.

Sonchus oleraceus L. var. laevis L., Sp. Pl.: 794 (1753) = Sonchus asper (L.) Vill.

Spadonia polymorpha Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. : 101 (1832), nom. nov. pro Baccharis tomentosa Thunb. = Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera

Spadonia polymorpha Less. [var.]  ceanothifolia Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. : 102 (1832) = Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera

Spadonia polymorpha Less. [var.] β elaeagnifolia Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. : 102 (1832) = Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera

Spadonia polymorpha Less. [var.] γ obtusifolia Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. : 102 (1832)= Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera

Spadonia polymorpha Less. [var.] d populifolia Less., Syn. Gen. Compos. : 102 (1832) = Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera

Sparganophorus africanus (Beauverd) Steud., Nom. Bot. 1: 801 (1821) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus fasciatus Lam. ex Poir., Encycl. 7: 302 (1806) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus fasciculatus Steud., Nom. Bot. 1: 801 (1821), orth. var. of Sparganophorus fasciatus Lam. ex Poir. = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus fuscatus Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 614 (1841), orth. var. of Sparganophorus fsciatus Lam. ex Poir. = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus obtusifolius Lag., Gen. Sp. Pl. : 25 (1816) = Ageratum conyzoides L.

Sparganophorus sparganophorus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 43(): 272 (1988), comb. illegit. taut. = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus struchium Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 398 (1807) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz, Inst.1: 261 (1766), nom. illegit. superfl., based on Ethulia sparganophorus L. = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze

Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz var. longifolius Griseb., Cat. Pl. Cub. : 143 (1866) = Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze