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Schkuhria Roth, Cat. Bot. 1: 116 (1797).

Tetracarpum Moench, Meth. Suppl. : 240 (1802). Type: Schkuhria abrotanoides Roth = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze

Chamaestephanum Willd., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. 1: 140 (1807). Type: not designated.

Mieria La Llave in La Llave & Lex., Nov. Veg. Descr. 2: 12 (1825). Type: Mieria virgata Llave & Lex. = Schkuhria virgata (Llave) DC. = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze

Achyropappus Link & Otto, Ic. Pl. Rar. Pl. 30 (1829), non Achyropappus Kunth (1818). Type: Achyropappus schkuhrioides Link & Otto = Schkuhria schkuhrioides (Link & Otto) Thell.

Hopkirkia DC., Prodr. 5: 660 (1836), non Hopkirkia Spreng. (1819). Type: Hopkirkia anthemoidea DC. = Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult.

Cephalobembix Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 46 (1914). Type: Schkuhria neomexicana A. Gray

Type: Schkuhria abrotanoides Roth = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze [var. abrotanoides (Roth) Cabrera]

References

Heiser Jr., C. B. (1945). A revision of the genus Schkuhria. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 265278.

Robinson, H. (2006). Schkuhria. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera MZ. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 9196.

Turner, B. L. (1995). Taxonomy and nomenclature of Schkuhria pinnata (Asteraceae, Helenieae). Phytologia 79(5): 364368.

Note: Robinson (2006) took a very broad view of S. pinnata but noting varieties were sometimes recognized. The full synonymy provided by Robinson is given below as S. pinnata, and could be divided. Turners (1995) further recognition of the North American element as var. wislizeni was provided against the background of MacVaughs (1984: 794799) treatment of plants from New Mexico. All are recognized as synonyms of a broad species concept. Anyone wanting to recognize any infraspecific categories should in the first instance examine Heisers (1945) revision for the South American element; This, following Turner, is to be referred solely to var. pinnata.

Key to species

1. Rays absent; achenes 10 or more 2

Ray or rays usually present; achenes 9 or less S. pinnata

2. (1) At least upper half of pappus scales awned 3

Pappus scales not awned, except rarely 1 or 24

3. (2) Awns of pappus scales 1 mm or longer; scales colourless S. multiflora

Awns less than 1 mm long; scales maroon to purplish S. degenerica

4. (2) Phyllaries 56, 2 rarely 3 mm wide; achenes usually less than 15; pappus scales rarely longer than 0.5 mm S. multiflora [var. pusilla]

Phyllaries 7 or more, mostly 12 mm wide; achenes usually more than 15; pappus scales frequently longer than 0.5 mm S. multiflora

Schkuhria abrotanoides Roth, Catalecta Bot. 1: 116 (1797) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schuhria abrotanoides Roth var. isopappa (Benth.) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 53 (1900) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuria abrotanoides Roth var. pomasquiensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 53 (1900) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria advena Thell., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 308 (1918) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. wislizenii (A. Gray) Heiser f. flava (Rydb.) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 274 (1945) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. guatemalensis (Rydb.) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 273 (1945) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. wislizeni (A. Gray) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 273 (1945) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. wrightii (A. Gray) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 274 (1945) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria bonariensis Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(No. 22): 321 (1841), p.p. = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria coquimbana Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 90: 29 (1895) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

*Schkuhria degenerica (Kuntze) R. E. Fr., Ark. Bot. 5(13): 22 (1906).

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd. var. major Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 7: 80 (1865), nom. nud.

Schkuhria oolepis Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 80 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 529 (1866), nom. nud. pro syn. (based on Mandon 72).

Rothia degenerica Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 169 (1898). Type: Bolivia: 3000 m am Rio Tapacari. [Bolivia. Rio Tapacari, 3000 m, 19 Mar 1892, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 336]

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija).

Schkuhria glabrescens Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 65: 46 (1918) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria guatemalensis (Rydb.) Standl. & Steyerm., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 22: 319 (1940) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria hopkirkia A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. [Pl. Wrightianae pt. 2] 5(Art. 6): 94 (1853) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

*Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. 3: 322 (1841). Type: Achyropappus schkuhrioides, Don, (non Link.) Mendoza; Dr Gillies. Holotype: K.

Achyropappus schkuhrioides D. Don ex Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. 3: 322 (1841), nom. nud. pro syn., non A. schkurioides Link & Otto (1829)(= Schkuhria schkuhrioides (Link & Otto) Thell.).

Schkuhria neo-mexicana A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, ser. 2, 4(1): 96 (1849). Type: Margin of fields, Santa F; July, Aug. ([Fendler] 458.). Holotype: GH.

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 73, t. 14, B (1856). Types: íYTí²'Hab. Prou: dans les champs sablonneux, pr s du village de Moho (frontire de la Bolivie), au voisinage du lac de Titicaca, h. 3900 m tres. Bolivie: environs de Potosi (dOrbigny, no 1403).

Amblyopappus neo-mexicana (A. Gray) A. Gray, Torrey Pacif. R. R. Report 4: 106 (1857).

Bahia neo-mexicana (A. Gray) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 19: 27 (1883).

Rothia intermedia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898). Type: Bolivia: 4000 m Challapata. [Bolivia. Challapata, 4000 m, 11 Mar 1892, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 336]

Rothia pusilla (Wedd.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898).

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd. var. aristata R. E. Fr., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 4(11): 85, t. 6, 8 (1905). Type: [Argentina:] Moreno loco arenosis, ca. 3500 m. s. m. (12 Dec. 1901; Fr[ies] 812 b, floribus et fructibus immaturis instructa.).

Achyropappus neo-mexicana (A. Gray) Rydb., Fl. Colorado : 377 (1906).

Cephalobembix neo-mexicana (A. Gray) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 46 (1914).

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd. var. longepedicellata Hauman, Anal. Soc. Ci. Argent. 86: 328 (1918) [p. 174 in separately reprint see References]. Types: En terrains secs, assez rare, prs de Puente del Inca, dans le sable au fond de la vall e, janvier 1910 (examplaires rachitique peu ramifis); Pr cordillre de San Juan, Carmen Alto, leg. Bodenbender, f vrier 1897 (Herb. Fac. Med. Buenos Aires). Holotype: ?BAF.

*Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn. var. pusilla (Wedd.) Cabrera, Anales Soc. Cient. Argentina 114: 192 (1932).

Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn. var. aristata (R. E. Fr.) Cabrera, Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 114: 193 (1932).

Argentina, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, La Paz, Oruro, Tarija), Chile, Mexico, Peru, USA.

Canchalagua (Ct) (Petenatti & Ariza Espinar, 1997: 23).

Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn. var. aristata (R. E. Fr.) Cabrera, Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 114: 193 (1932) = Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn.

*Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn. var. pusilla (Wedd.) Cabrera, Anales Soc. Cient. Argentina 114: 192 (1932) = Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn.

Schkuhria octoaristata DC., Prodr. 5: 654 (1836) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria oolepis Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 80 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 529 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. pro syn. (based on Mandon 72) = Schkuhria degenerica (Kuntze) R. E. Fr.

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898), pro syn. = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

*Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 308 (1912).

Pectis pinnata Lam., J. Hist. Nat. 2: 150, pl. 31 (1792). Type: Habitat . . . . K s. L. Holotype: ?Z.

Schkuhria abrotanoides Roth, Catal. Bot. 1: 116 (1797). Type: Sub nomine Bellii minuti mihi communicata sunt semina ab amico perdilecto Ill. de Voigt. Holotype: unknown, but probably B or B-W.

Mieria virgata La Llave & Lex., Nov. Veg. Descr., fasc. 2: 9 (1825). Type: Habitat ad colles Tacnbaya et aliis in locis Mexico vicinis. Holotype: G.

Schkuhria octoaristata DC., Prodr. 5: 654 (1836). Type: in Peruvi legit cl. Dombey [27]. ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC. There are two specimens labelled as S. octoaristata in G-DC. One is clearly a Dombey collection from Paris, which is considered to be the holotype; the other, numbered 84, is without the collectorâ''s name.

Schkuhria virgata (Llave & Lex.) DC., Prodr. 5: 654 (1836). [Note: this was placed in synonymy with S. octoaristata in Robinsons homotypic synonymy but this cannot be the case!]

Hopkirkia anthemoidea DC., Prodr. 5: 660 (1836). Type: in Mexici agro Regiomontano legit cl. Haenke. (v.s. in h. Haenk. cl. de Sternberg comm.). Holotype: PR; isotype: G-DC.

Schkuhria bonariensis Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(No. 22): 321 (1841), pro parte. Types: Ò'Pampas of Buenos Ayres; Dr. Gillies. Buenos Ayres; Tweedie.

Schkuhria isopappa Benth., Pl. Hartweg. : 205 (1845). Type: [Peru:] Ad pontem Guapulo prope Quito. [Hartweg ].

Schkuhria wislizeni A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts [Pl. Fendl.] ser. 2, 4: 96 (1849). Type: High mountains around Cosiquiriachi in the Sierra Madre west of Chihuahua, Oct. Dr. Wislizenus.

Schkuhria hopkirkia A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. [Pl. Wrightianae pt. 2] 5 (Art. 6): 94 (1853), nom. illegit., based on Hopkirkia anthemoidea DC.

Schkuhria wrightii A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. [Pl. Wrightianae pt. 2] 5 (Art. 6): 95 (1853). Type: On the Sonorita near Deserted Rancho, Sonora; Sept. ([Wright] 1254.).

Amblyopappus mendocinus Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 36: 184 (1870). Type: [Chile:] Mendoza. Pizarro (1960: 131) cited two collections in SGO 60578, 44110. Note: Philippi (1870) also noted Nuestros ejemplares no son ... suggesting there were either two collections or more than one specimen per collection.

Schkuhria pringlei S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 278 (1888). Type: In moist places on the plains near Guerrero, Chihuahua; C. G. Pringle (n. 1292), Sept., 1887.

Schkuhria coquimbana Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 90: 29 (1895). Type: Prope Paihuano in provincia Coquimbo legit Frid. Philippi incolae eam cachanlahuen cimarron vocant. [Cerca de Paihuano, en la provincia de Coquimbo, la recolect Federico Philippi; la gente la llama cachanlahu n cimarrn. 60580 ó"'- Pizarro, 1960: 154]

Rothia pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898).

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898), pro syn.

Rothia pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze a pallida Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898), pro parte

Rothia pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze b purpuascens Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 170 (1898), pro parte

Schkuria abrotanoides Roth var. pomasquiensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 53 (1900*). Type: [Ecuador] Crescit in arvis arenosis prope Pomasqui (S.[odiro] n. 47). Holotype: B. [*Note: See Reference section concerning problem with date of publication]

Schuhria abrotanoides Roth var. isopappa (Benth.) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 53 (1900*). [*Note: See Reference section concerning problem with date of publication]

Tetracarpum wrightii (A. Gray) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 44 (1914).

Tetracarpum pringlei (S. Watson) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 44 (1914).

Tetracarpum virgatum (La Llave & Lex.) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 45 (1914).

Tetracarpum anthemoideum (DC.) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 45 (1914).

Tetracarpum wislizeni (A. Gray) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 45 (1914).

Tetracarpum guatemalensis Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 45 (1914). Type: Type collected at Llano de San Juan de Dios, Guatemala, 1865, Bernouli 135. Holotype: originally LGO, transferred to USNC.

Tetracarpum flavum Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 46 (1914). Types: Type collected in Sierra de San Felipe, Oaxaca, October 10, 1894, Charles L. Smith 263 & 626. Syntypes: NY.

Schkuhria glabrescens Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 65: 46 (1918). Type: Mexico, Valley of Mexico, alt. 7300 ped. (Pringle n. 7928!).

Schkuhria advena Thell., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 308 (1918). Type: Sd-Afrika: Transvaal: Florida, 1906, H. Hutton no. 630 (Albany Museum), ab S. bonariensis in herb. Univ. Z rich. Holotype: Z.

Schkuhria guatemalensis (Rydb.) Standl. & Steyerm., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 22: 319 (1940).

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. var. virgata (Llave & Lex.) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 32(3): 271 (1945).

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. f. pringlei (S. Watson) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 271 (1945).

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. guatemalensis (Rydb.) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 273 (1945).

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. wislizenii (A. Gray) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 273 (1945).

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. wislizenii (A. Gray) Heiser f. flava (Rydb.) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 274 (1945).

Schkuhria anthemoidea (DC.) Coult. var. wrightii (A. Gray) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32(3): 274 (1945).

Schkuhria wislizeni A. Gray var. wrightii (A. Gray) S. F. Blake, Leaflets West. Bot. 6: 115 (1951).

Schkuhria wislizeni (A. Gray) Rydb. var. frustrata S. F. Blake, Leaflets West. Bot. 6: 115 (1951), nom. nov. pro Hopkirkia anthemoidea DC.

Schkuhria wilsizeni A. Gray var. guatemalensis (Rydb.) S. F. Blake, Leaflets West. Bot. 6: 115 (1951).

Schkuhria wislizeni A. Gray f. flava (Rydb.) S. F. Blake, Leaflets West. Bot. 6: 115 (1951).

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. var. guatemalensis (Rydb.) McVaugh, Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 9: 443 (1972).

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze var. wislizeni (A. Gray) B. L. Turner, Phytologia 79: 364 (1995).

Argentina, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela; Cape Verde Islands, cult. ex France, Mozambique.

Canchalagua; Matapulgas (Petenatti & Ariza Espinar, 1997: 24)

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. var. guatemalensis (Rydb.) McVaugh, Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 9: 443 (1972) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. f. pringlei (S. Watson) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32: 271 (1945) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. var. virgata (Llave & Lex.) Heiser, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 32: 271 (1945) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze var. wislizeni (A. Gray) B. L. Turner, Phytologia 79: 364 (1995) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 73, t. 14, B (1856) = Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn.

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd. var. aristata R. E. Fr., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 4(11): 85, t. 6, 8 (1905) = Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn.

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd. var. longepedicellata Hauman, Anal. Soc. Ci. Argent. 86: 328 (1918) = Schkuhria multiflora Hook. & Arn.

Schkuhria pusilla Wedd. var. major Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 7: 80 (1865), nom. nud. = Schkuhria degenerica (Kuntze) R. E. Fr.

Schkuhria virgata (La Llave & Lex.) DC., Prodr. 5: 654 (1836) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria wislizeni A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts [Pl. Fendl.] ser. 2, 4: 96 (1849) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria wislizeni A. Gray f. flava (Rydb.) S. F. Blake, Leaflets West. Bot. 6: 115 (1951) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria wislizeni (A. Gray) Rydb. var. frustrata S. F. Blake, Leaflets West. Bot. 6: 115 (1951) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Schkuhria wrightii A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. [Pl. Wrightianae pt. 2] 5 (Art. 6): 95 (1853) = Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell.

Senecio L. sect. Culcitium (Humb. & Bonpl.) Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27: 50 (1950) = Culcitium Humb. & Bonpl.

Senecio L. sect. Dendrophorbium Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 72 (1951) = Dendrophorbium (Cuatrec.) C. Jeffrey

Senecio L. sect. Diclini Cabrera, Lilloa 5(1): 73 (1939) = Chersodoma Phil.

Senecio L. subgen. Dioicosenecio Cabrera, Lilloa 5(1): 68 (1939), nom. nud. = Chersodoma Phil.

Senecio L. sect. Emilioidei Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 43: 40 (1909) = Emilia (Cass.) Cass.

Senecio L. sect. Macbrideus Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 72 (1951) = Dendrophorbium (Cuatrec.) C. Jeffrey

Senecio L. sect. Myriocephalus Cabrera, Lilloa 15: 56 (1949) = Dendrophorbium (Cuatrec.) C. Jeffrey

Senecio L. ser. Myriocephali (Cabrera) Cabrera, Darwiniana 26(14): 126 (1985), comb. illegit, nom. non rite public. = Dendrophorbium (Cuatrec.) C. Jeffrey

Senecio L. sect. Pluricephali Cabrera, Lilloa 5(1): 70 (1939) = Dendrophorbium (Cuatrec.) C. Jeffrey

Senecio L. sect. Praegynoxys Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 72 (1951) = Nordenstamia Lundin

Senecio L. sect. Streptothamnus Greenm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 19 (1902) = Pentacalia Cass.