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Piptocarpha R. Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 121 (1817)[1818].

Carphobolus Schott in Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4, Cur. Post. : 469 (1827). Lectotype (selected by Jones, 1980): Carphobolus sessiliflorus Schott = Piptocarpha lucida (Spreng.) Benn. ex Baker/Smith & Coile (2007) gave the following: Carphobolus Schott ex Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 408-430 (1863). Lectotype (selected by Strother, 2001: 191): Carpholbolus lucidus (Spreng.) Sch.Bip. = Piptocarpha lucida (Spreng.) Benn. ex Baker

Vernonia Schreb. sect. Vanilosma Less., Linnaea 6: 630 (1831). Type: not cited. Lectotype (selected by Robinson, 1999: 51): Vernonia axillaris Less. = Piptocarpha axillaris (Less.) Baker

Vanilosma (sub Vannillosma [sic!]) (Less.) Spach, Hist. Nat. Vg. 10: 39 (1841).

Monanthemum Griseb., Fl. Brot. W. Ind. Isl. : 354 (1861), nom. illegit., non Steele (1843).

Carphobolus Schott ser. Axillares Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20/21: 416 (1863). Lectotype (selected by Smith & Coile, 2007: 37): Vernonia axillaris Less. = Piptocarpha axillaris (Less.) Baker

Carphobolus Schott ser. Acutanguli Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20/21: 418 (1863). Lectotype (selected by Smith & Coile, 2007: 37): Vernonia macropoda DC. = Piptocarpha macropoda (DC.) Baker

Carphobolus Schott sect. Oocephalus Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20/21: 422 (1863). Lectotype (selected by Smith & Coile, 2007: 33): Vernonia poeppigiana DC. = Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker

Carphobolus Schott subgen. Trigonachaena Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20/21: 424 (1863). Lectotype (selected by Smith & Coile, 2007: 32): Vernonia rotundifolia Less. = Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker

Lectotype (selected by Strother, 2001: 191): Piptocarpha brasiliana Cass.

References

Lessing, C. F. (1831). De synanthereis Herbarii Regni Berolinensis dissertatio quatro. Vernoniearum mantissa. Linnaea 6: 624721.

Robinson, H. (2002). Three new species of Piptocarpha (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) from Ecuador anad Peru. Novon 12(4): 393--398.

Smith, G. L. & N. C. Coile. (2007). Piptocarpha (Compositae: Vernonieae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 99: 194.

Piptocarpha asterotrichia (Poepp.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 127 (1873).

Vernonia asterotrichia Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 41, tab. 247 (1843). Type: Crescit in marginibus sylvarum Peruviae orientalis ad Missionem Tocache. Junio florebat. Smith & Coile (2007: 47) cited: Peru. Loreto: Maynas, Tocache, Jun 1830, Poeppig 1887. Holotype: W; isotypes: GH (fragment), NY, P.

Carphobolus asterotrichia (Poepp.) Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 426 (1863).

Piptocarpha insignis Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59(6): 371 (1932). Type: Killip & Smith 26083, collected in dense forest at San Nicolas, Pichis Trail, Dept. Junn, Peru, alt. about 1100 m., and deposited in the herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden. Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz), Colombia, Peru.

Piptocarpha chontalensis Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 132 (1873) = Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker

Piptocarpha costaricensis Klatt, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 31(1): 184 (1892) = Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker

Piptocarpha insignis Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59(6): 371 (1932) = Piptocarpha asterotrichia (Poepp.) Baker

*Piptocarpha laxa Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 123 (1912) = Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker

*Piptocarpha lechleri (Sch.Bip.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 127 (1873).

Carphobolus lechleri Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 428 (1863). Type: ''Vernonia Lechleri Sz-Bip. in Lechl! pl. peruv. ed. Hohenacker n. 2479 et in Lechl! Berberid. p. 57 ... Peruvia, inter virgulta pr. St. Gavan, Aug. 1854 leg. Lechler! n. 2479. Holotype: B; isotypes: G, K. Lectotype (selected by Smith & Coile, 2007: 45): K.

Piptocarpha vismiifolia Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59(6): 372 (1932). Type: Killip & Smith 23848, collected in dense forest east of Quimir Bridge, near La Merced, Dept. Jun n, Peru, alt. 8001300 m., bearing immature flowers in June, and deposited in the herbarium of The New York Botanical Gardens; Holotype: NY; isotypes: F, K, US.

Piptocarpha longifolia Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59(6): 372 (1932). Type: Killip & Smith 25459, collected in dense forest at Yapas, Pichis Trail, Dept. Junn, Peru, alt. 13501600 m., and deposited in the herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden.-' Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Piptocarpha longifolia Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59(6): 372 (1932) = Piptocarpha lechleri (Sch.Bip.) Baker

Piptocarpha matogrossensis H. Rob., Phytologia 44(4): 300 (1979). Type: BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: Vicinity of Barro do Garas, ca. 45 km N. on road to Xavantina. Cerrado. Small tree ca. 4 m 10 cm. [sic!] Pappus gray-brown. Occasional. Elev. 300-300 m. [sic!] Oct. 15, 1964 Irwin & Soderstrom 6926. Holotype: US.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil.

Piptocarpha paraensis Cabrera, Arq. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 15: 73 (1957) = Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker

Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): (187).

Vernonia tereticaulis DC., Prodr. 5: 20 (1836). Type: L in Americ calidiore? (Nee!), ad Guayaquil (Haenk!) ... (v.s. in herb. Haenk.). Note: there is only one collection, apparently that of N e, ex herb. Thibaud. The other syntype would have been seen by de Candolle in material from PR.

Vernonia poeppigiana DC., Prodr. 5: 20 (1836). Type: L in Peruvi legit cl. Poeppig. Pl. ign. no. 23 et 1425. ... (v.s. comm. cl. Poeppig.). Holotype: G-DC. Note: The label with the specimen has No. 23 Plant. ign./1425.

Carphobolus poeppigianus (DC.) Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 422 (1863).

Carphobolus tereticaulis (DC.) Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 422 (1863).

Piptocarpha tereticaulis (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 132 (1873).

Piptocarpha chontalensis Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 132 (1873). Types: Nicaragua in ditione Chontales: Ralph Tate 162, 163, Seemann 110. Lectotype (selected by Jones, 1980: 48): K; isolectotype: BM.

Cacalia poeppigiana (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 971 (1891).

Piptocarpha costaricensis Klatt, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 31(1): 184 (1892). Types: Lectotype (selected by Jones 1980: 48): Pittier 4927 GH; isolectotypes: BR, GH, M.

*Piptocarpha laxa Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 123 (1912). Type: [Bolivia:] Charopampa, 1600 ft. alt., Sept. 22, 1901 ([R.S. Williams] no. 703). Holotype: NY; isotypes: BM, K, US.

Piptocarpha paraensis Cabrera, Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 15: 73 (1957). Type: Habitat: Brasil. {ar: Rio Tapajoz, Pimentel, leg. A. Ducke, 21-VIII-1923. Holotype: LP; isotype: RB (18449).

Belize, Bolivia (Ben , La Paz, Santa Cruz), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela.

Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 125 (1873).

Vernonia rotundifolia Less., Linnaea 4(2): 254 (1829). Types: E Brasilia trop. misit Sellow Spec. . Syntypes: B.

Carphebolus rotundifolius (Less.) Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 422 (1863).

Vanillosma firmum Mart. ex Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 20-21: 424 (1863). Type:

Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil.

Piptocarpha tereticaulis (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 131 (1873) = Piptocarpha poeppigiana (DC.) Baker

Piptocarpha vismiifolia Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 59(6): 372 (1932) = Piptocarpha lechleri (Sch.Bip.) Baker

Piqueria attenuata (DC.) Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 430 (1847) = Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (D. Don ex Hook. & Arn.) DC.

Piqueria subcordata (DC.) Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 430 (1847) = Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (D. Don ex Hook. & Arn.) DC.