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Pentacalia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 48: 461 (1827).

Senecio L. sect. Streptothamnus Greenm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 19 (1902).

Type: Senecio streptothamnus Greenm. ex Standl. = Pentacalia streptothamna (Greenm. ex Standl.) H. Rob. & Cuatrec.

References

Cabrera, A. L. (1954). Senecios Sudamericanas nuevos o crticos. Darwiniana 10(4): 547605 & L mina IVII. [q.v. Los Senecio volubles de Per y Bolivia, pp. 579604 & L mina IVII]

Cabrera, A. L. (1985). El genero Senecio (Compositae) en Bolivia. Darwiniana 26(14): 79217. [q.v. sect. Streptothamni Greenm.]

Robinson, H. & J. Cuatrecasas (1993). New species of Pentacalia (Senecioneae: Asteraceae) from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Novon 3(3): 284301.

Vision, T. J. & M. O. Dillon (1996). Sinopsis de Senecio L. (Senecioneae, Asteraceae) para el Per. Arnaldoa 4(1): 2346.

Key to species

1. Capitula radiate; margins florets with well-developed ray limbs 2

Captula discoid or sub-discoid; marginal florets tubular or absent; involucre 46 mm tall 14

2. (1) Involucres 710 mm tall 3

Involucres 3--6 mm tall; leaves never with revolute margins 6

3. (2) Leaves ovate or elliptic, with repand-dentate or entire margins, more or less conspicuously revolute; phyllaries 8144

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, base attenuate or rounded, entire; phyllaries 8 Senecio buchtienii

4. (3) Leaves 911 cm long by 34 cm wide, tomentose beneath; inflorescences paniculate; phyllaries 14 P. cardenasii

Leaves 28 cm long by 1.54 cm wide, glabrous above and beneath 5

5. (4) Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, usually with a cordate base, margins crennate-dentate; phyllaries 8 (13)P. dictyophlebius

Leaves ovate-elliptic, base attenuate or rounded, margins entire; phyllaries 13P. tablensis

6. (2) Leaf margins serrate; phyllaries 137

Leaf margins entire 9

7. (6) Petioles 22.5 cm long Senecio croicensis

Petioles 110 mm long 8

8. (7) Leaf bases rounded; pedicels 1525 mm long; inflorescence of lax panicles P. yungasensis

Leaf bases cuneate; pedicels 515 mm long; inflorescence of dense panicles P. chulumanicus

9. (6) Ray limbs very short or absent, not exceeding disc florets; leaves lanceolate P. jelskii

Ray limbs well-developed, exceeding disc florets 10

10. (9) Involucre 6 mm tall 11

Involucre 3.54 mm tall12

11. (10) Stems more or less floccose; involucre 6 mm diam. P. floccosa

Stems not floccose; involucre 4 mm diam. P. epiphytica

12. (10) Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 611 cm long by 2.54 cm wide; involucres 3.54 mm tall P. miguelii

Leaves ovate or elliptic; involucre 3 mm tall 13

13. (12) Phyllaries 89; leaves elliptic or ovate, 89 cm long by 46 cm wide P. psidiifolia

Phyllaries 1113; leves ovate, 59 cm long by 2.54.5 cm wide P. brittoniana

14. (1) Leaves densely tomentose beneath 15

Leaves somewhat lanuginose or glabrous beneath 17

15. (14) Leaf margins entire P. marinii

Leaf margins dentate 16

16. (15) Involucre glabrescent; leaves white-tomentose beneath P. herzogii

Involucre and underside of leaves yellowish-brown tomentose P. oronocensis

17. (14) Leaf margins shortly denticulate 18

Leaf margins entire 19

18. (17) Leaves lanceolate, 23 cm wide, reticulate venation conspicuous/prominent beneath P. beckii

Leaves elliptic, 3.55 cm wide, venation inconspicuous beneath P. sailapatensis

19. (17) Leaves lanceolate; involucre 5 mm tall P. jelskii

Leaves ovate20

20. (19) Involucre 4 mm tall; leaves 3.56 cm wide P. comarapensis

Involucre 56 mm tall; leaves 1.53 cm wide P. subglomerosa

Pentacalia beckii (Cabrera) Cuatrec., Phytologia 69(5): 314 (1990).

Senecio beckii Cabrera, Hickenia 2(4): 15 (1984). Type: Bolivia. Deptro. La Paz, Prov. Nor Yungas, La Paz 65 km hacia Coroico. 2700 m s.m. Bosque temporalmente nebuloso en zona de nubes, leg. St. G. Beck No 1822, 28-VII-1979. Holotype: SI.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia brittoniana (Hieron.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 244 (1981).

*Senecio sprucei Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19(9): 265 (1892), non Klatt (1888). [Types: Yungas, 4,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1695). The same as Spruces No. 4811.

*Senecio brittonianus Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 72 (1900), as nom. nov. pro S. sprucei Britton.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia buchtienii (Greenm,) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 244 (1981) = Denrophorbium buchtienii (Greenm.) C. Jeffrey

Pentacalia cardenasii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 253 (1981).

*Senecio cardenasii Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 48 (1951). Type: Bolivia, near Chulumani way to Yungas of Tablas, Cochabamba, 2700 m. alt. on wet bushy slopes. Herb 2 met. flowers yellow. Collect. M. Cardenas 3988. Syntypes: F, US.

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Pentacalia chulumanica (Cabrera) Cuatrec., Phytologia 69(5): 314 (1990).

Senecio chulumanicus Cabrera, Hickenia 2(4): 17 (1984). Type: BOLIVIA. Depto. La Paz, Prov. Sud Yungas, Chulumani ca. 5 km hacia Irupana, entrando por la propriedad del Sr. Portugal. 1850 m s.m. Leg. St. G. Beck No 4875, 3-X-1981. Holotype: SI; isotype: LPB. Note: Freire & Iharlegui (2000: 336) noted that on the collecting label the date was clearly 30-X-1981.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia comarapensis (Cabrera) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 245 (1981).

*Senecio comarapensis Cabrera, Darwiniana 10(4): 599 (1954). Type: Bolivia: Dep. Santa Cruz, Comarapa, Yungas de San Mateo, 2900 m s.m., leg. J. Steinbach, 8519, 25-X-1938. Syntypes: LIL, S, MO. Lectotype (selected by Cabrera, 1985: 106, as holotype): LIL (91764); isolectotypes: MO, S.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Pentacalia dictyophlebia (Greenm.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 245 (1981).

*Senecio dictyophlebius Greenm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25(4): 801 (1938). Type: Bolivia: vicinity of Sorata, alt. 3400 m., 31 Dec., 1858, G. Mandon, no. 146. Holotype: K; isotypes: BM, BR, G, NY, W.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia epiphytica (Kuntze) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 246 (1981).

*Senecio epiphyticus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 173 (1898). Type: Bolivia: 3000 m Tunarigebirge, Cinchona-Region, hoch in den Baumkronen nur wachsend. [Bolivia. Tunarigebirge, Cinchona-Region, 3000 m, May 1892, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 337]. holotype: NY.

*Senecio steinbachianus Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 55 (1951). Type: Bolivia, Prov. Chapare, Dept. Cochabamba: Quebrada de Corani, 200 met. lat. Wurzelt und rankt an Staemen. Coll. 21-VI-1929 Jose Steinbach 9876. Holotype: F; isotype: S.

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Cabrera (1975: 258) also recorded this species from Peru, but later (1985: 96) only recorded it for Argentina and Bolivia.

Pentacalia floccosa (Britton) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 246 (1981).

*Senecio floscosus Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19(9): 264 (1892). Types: Near La Paz, 10,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1680); Unduavi, 8,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1720).

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), Peru.

Pentacalia herzogii (Cabrera) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 246 (1981).

Senecio herzogii Beauverd ex Herzog, Pflanzenw. Bolivischen Anden : 188 (1923), nom. nud.

*Senecio herzogii Cabrera, Blumea 7(1): 202 (1952). Type: [Bolivia] Hab.: Kletternd im Bergwald bei Choquetanga Grande, 3300 m alt., Okt. 1911, [Herzog] n. 2145 (Typus). Holotype: L.

Bolivia (?).

Pentacalia inquisiviensis H. Rob. & Cuatrec., Novon 3(3): 300 (1993). Type: Bolivia. La Paz: Prov. Inquisivi, on slopes W of Ro Glorieta, and along river between mouths of R o Aballahuanta and Ro Cayani 7 km S of Choquetanga, 1654'S 6717'W, 3,150 3,550 m, 19 June 1991, Lewis 38950. Holotype: US; isotype: MO.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia krukoffii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 255 (1981) = Dendrophorbium krukoffii (Cuatrec.) C. Jeffrey

Pentacalia jelskii (Hieron.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 247 (1981).

Senecio jelskii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 509 (1905). Type: Peruvia: crescit prope Tambillo (J.[elski] n. 769, anno 1878). Holotype: B.

*Senecio prunioides Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 396 (1907). Type: [Bolivia:] Climbing 10 to 15 feet upon trees, in forest-mould and clay, the flowers of a dirty yellow, Coroico, Sept. 1894. ([Bang] No. 2437.) Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), Peru.

Pentacalia lewisii H. Rob. & Cuatrec., Novon 3(3): 301 (1993). Type: Bolivia. La Paz: Prov. Inquisivi, Pavionani, on slope above Pavionani fork of Ro Chimu below headwater divide with R o Janko Kalani, area 7 km N of Choquetanga, 1648'S 6718'W, 3,700 3,750 m, 9 Apr. 1991, Lewis 38520. Holotype: US; isotype: MO.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia marinii (Cabrera) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 248 (1981). Note: although not citing an exact basionym page, the page range included the whole of Cabreras protologue (pp. 590593) to Senecio marinii. This is perfectly acceptable under the present Code.

*Gynoxys discolor Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 398 (1907). Type: [Bolivia:] ([Bang] No. 2280.) Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Senecio marinii Cabrera, Darwiniana 10: 590 (1954). Type: Per. Dep. Cuzco, Prov. Convenci n, Amaybamba, 1800 m s.m., leg. F. Marn 1789, X-1949. Holotype: LP. Note: in his observations Cabrera said that he would ''probably have to refer Gynoxys discolor Rusby to this species, but noted that the florets in one isotype were too poorly developed to allow proper comparison.

Bolivia (?), Peru.

Pentacalia medullosa (Sch.Bip. ex Greenm.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 256 (1981) = Dendrophorbium medullosum (Sch.Bip. ex Greenm.) C. Jeffrey

Pentacalia miguelii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 248 (1981).

*Senecio miguelii Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 54 (1951). Type: Bolivia, collected Miguel Bang 2039. Syntypes: F, US. [2 duplicates in US marked as isotype]; isotype: LD.

Bolivia (?La Paz).

Pentacalia oronocensis (DC.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 248 (1981).

*Senecio oronocensis DC., Prodr. 6: 423 (1838). Type: L in Amer. australis montibus Oronocensibus legit cl. Haenke. ... (v.s. in h. Haenke cl. de Sternberg miss.). Holotype: PR.

*Senecio baccharidiflorus Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 397 (1907). Type: [Bolivia:] ' A climber with white flowers, growing in rich forest-mould. Unduavi, September, 1894. ([Bang] No. 2494.)

Senecio cuzcoensis Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot. 9(No. 45): 196 (1941). Type: Per. Departamento de Cuzco, Provincia de Pancastambo: Pillahuata, 2800 m. s. m., voluble en bosques ralos, leg. C. Vargas, no 1908, 18-VI-1940. Holotype: Herb. Cabrera'' LP (64716).

Senecio ramonii Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 53 (1951). Type: Peru: Carpish, entre Huanuco y Tingo Mara, 2800-2900 m. alt. Flores blancas. Arbusto 1-1.5 met. Collect. Aug. 1947 Ram n Ferreyra 2310. Holotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Pentacalia psidiifolia (Rusby) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 249 (1981).

*Senecio psidiifolius Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 6(1): 66 (1896). Type: [Bolivia:] Mapiri, JulyAug., 1892 ([Bang] 1532). Holotype: NY; isotypes: US 2, Z (000003971).

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia sailapatensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 249 (1981).

*Senecio sailapatensis Cuatrec., Fieldiana, Bot. 27(2): 52 (1951). Type: Bolivia, Dept. Cochabamba, Prov. Ayopaya: Sailapata 2700 m. alt. Vine flowers white, collect. X-1935 in wet forest by M. Crdenas 3273. Holotype: US.

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Pentacalia subglomerosa (Greenm.) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 250 (1981).

*Senecio subglomerosus Greenm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 10(1): 93 (1923). Type: ''Bolivia: Coroico, Yungas, September, 1894, Bang 2459. Holotype: NY; isotypes: GH, MO, US 2.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Pentacalia tablensis (Cabrera) Cuatrec., Phytologia 49(3): 250 (1981).

*Senecio tablensis Cabrera, Blumea 7(1): 203 (1950). Type: Hab.: Liane and der Waldgrenze ber Tablas, 3400 m alt., Mai 1911, [Herzog] n. 2204. Holotype: L; isotype: LP (899000).

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

Pentacalia yungasensis (Britton) Cuatrec., Phytologia 69(5): 314 (1990).

*Senecio yungasensis Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 264 (1892). Type: Yungas, 4,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1719). Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.