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Mikania Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 3(3): 1742 (1803), nom. cons.

Carelia Juss. ex Cav., Anales Ci. Nat. 6: 317 (1802)[1803], non Carelia Ponted. ex Fabr. (1759) (= Ageratum L.), nec Less. (1832) (= Radlkoferotoma Kuntze). Type: Carelia saturejifolia Cav. = Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) Karsten

Corynanthelium Kunze, Linnaea 20: 19 (1847). Type: Corynanthelium moronoa Kunze = Mikania glomerata Spreng.

Morrenia Kunze, Linnaea 20: 19 (1847), nom. nud. pro syn.

Kanimia Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 446 (1847). Type: Mikania strobilifera Gardner = Mikania oblongifolia DC.

Willoughbya Neck. ex Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 371 (1891). Type: Eupatorium scandens L. = Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.

Type: Eupatorium scandens L., typ. cons. = Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.

References

Baker, J. G. (1876). Mikania. Compositae I. Vernoniaceae, II. Eupatoriaceae. In: C. F. P. Martius & A. G. Eichler (eds), Flora Brasiliensis ... Monachii, Lipsiae. vol. 6(2): 217271.

Barroso, G. M. (1958). Mikaniae do Brasil. Arq. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 16: 239333 (335), estampa IXXX, foto 157

Holmes, W. C. (1990). The genus Mikania (Compositae: Eupatorieae) in Mexico. Sida, Bot. Misc. 5: 145.

Holmes, W. C. (1993). The genus Mikania (Compositae: Eupatorieae) in the Greater Antilles. Sida, Bot. Misc. 9: 169.

Holmes, W. C. (2001). 84. Addenda al gnero Mikania Willd. (Compositae-Eupatorieae) de la flora del Paraguay. II. In: L. Ramella & P. Perret (eds), Notulae ad Floram paraquaiensem, 8285. Candollea 56(1): 123閖126.

Holmes, W. C. & S. McDaniel. (1982). Mikania. In: J. F. Macbride et al. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana, Bot. n.s. 9: 157.

Holmes, W. C. & S. McDaniel (1989). Studies on Mikania (Composite) XVI: Priority of the name M. dentata Sprengel over M. ternata (Vell. Conc.) B. L. Robinson. Phytologia 65(6): 489490.

Robinson, B. L. (1922). The mikanias of northern and western South America. Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 21116.

Mikania almagroi Cuatrec., Anales Ci. Univ. Madrid 4(2): 233 (1935) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania amara Bertero ex DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836), nom. nud., non Willd. (1803) (= Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) H. Karst.) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania amara (Aubl.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1477 (1803) = Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) Karst.

Mikania amara (Aubl.) Willd., var. b guaco (Humb. & Bonpl.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2)

Mikania antioquiensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 580 (1901) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania antioquiensis Hieron. var. subcuneata B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 32 (1934) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania anzoatiguensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 301 (1946) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania apiifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 202 (1836) = Mikania ternata (Vell.) B. L. Rob.

Mikania aquaria B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 73: 21 (1924). Type: Peru: a liana with succulent hollow and water-filled stems, growing on the montaa along open stream, alt. about 610 m., Aug. 10-24, 1923, J. F. Macbride, no. 5242. Holotype: F; isotypes: GH, K.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Mikania argyrostigma Miq., Linnaea 17: 69 (1843) = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

Mikania aspera Miq., Linnaea 17: 68 (1843) = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

Mikania atriplicifolia Sch.Bip. ex Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 189 (1851) = Mikania congesta DC.

? Mikania attenuata DC., Prodr., 5: 195 (1836) = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

Mikania auricularis Griseb., Abh. K nigl. Ges. Wiss. Gttingen 19([1]): 170 (1874) = Mikania periplocifolia Hook. & Arn.

*Mikania baccharoidea Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 127 (1912). Type: [Bolivia:] Climbing over bushes, Cargadira, 8000 ft., July 30, 1902 ([R.S. Williams] No. 1604). Holotype: NY; isotype: K.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania badieri DC., Prodr. 5: 194 (1836) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania badieri DC. var. b kittsiana Urb., Symb. Antill. 5(2): 220 (May 1907) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania banisteriae DC., Prodr. 5: 193 (1836). Type: L Z? in Brasili? ... (v.s. ex coll. cl. Poeppig.).[Poeppig 135] Holotype: G-DC; isotype: F.

Mikania caudata Benth., Pl. Hartweg. : 201 (1845). Type: ⒑In sylvis prope Guacluas, prov. Bogota. [A climber in the woods near the village of Guaduas in the province of Bogota. Hartweg 1112]. Holotype: K (ex herb. Benthamianum); isotypes: GH (fragment of holotype), K (ex herb. Hookerianum) simply labelled 1112 with Columbia/Hartweg written on the sheet. Note: the printed version of the name (Guacluas) differs from that on the holotype label, and in reality, Guaduas.

Mikania ruiziana Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. 3: 53 (1845). Type: Crescit in Peruviae subandinae sylvis lucifioribus versus Cuchero. Novembre florebat. [Poeppig 1473] Holotype: W.

Mikania gabrieli Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 235 (1876). Type: Habitat prov. do Alto Amazonas, in Capoeira˝ ad S. Gabriel da Cachoeira: Spruce n. 2203. Holotype: K; isotype: BM, NY.

Willoughbya banisteriae (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 371 (1891).

Mikania ruiziana Poepp. var. lehmanniana Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19(1): 45 (1895). Type: Colombia: crescit in fruticetis prope Dolores, prov. Tolima, alt. s. m. 10001800 m ([Lehmann] n. 7483). Floret mense Martio. Holotype: B; isotypes: F, K.

Mikania antioquiensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 580 (1901). Types: Columbia: crescit in silvis densis camporum sbanas dictorum prope Santo Domingo, Cancan et Amalfi, alt. s. m. 15002000 m, mense Septembri florens (L.[ehmann] n. XCVII. 19 Sept. 1884); prope Amalfi, mense Septembri florens (L.[ehmann] n. 7971).ᖒ Isosyntype: (Lehmann 7971), US.

Mikania antioquiensis Hieron. var. subcuneata B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 32 (1934). Type: Peru: vine, climbing tangle, in open, sandy soil along trail from Iquitos to San Juan, alt. 105 m., flowers white, Feb. 7, 1932, Mrs. Ynes Mexia, no. 6492. Holotype: GH.

Mikania almagroi Cuatrec., Anales Ci. Univ. Madrid 4(2): 233 (1935). Type: Ecuador: San Jos, jun. 1865, leg. Juan Isern (n m. 368). Holotype: MA.

Mikania skutchii S. F. Blake, Brittonia 2(4): 333 (1937). Type: Costa Rica: In forest, vicinity of El General, Prov. San Jos, altitude 1130 m., Jan. 1936, Skutch 2514. Holotype: US (1,642,451).

Mikania canaguensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 9(No. 58): 132 (1944). Type: [Venezuela:] 钑Montaas de los alredores de Canagu , 1600 m. Edo. Mrida, 8 de Noviembre de 1943, (V. M. Badillo No. 562; tipo en el Herbario Nacional de Venezuela). Holotype: VEN.

Mikania molinensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 296 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] ퟅEdo. Mrida: bosques cerca de El Molino, entre Canagu y Sta. Cruz de Mora, 1500 m., noviembre 16 de 1943 (V. M. Badillo 610). Holotype: VEN.

Mikania oniaensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 297 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] Edo. Mrida: bosques a lo largo del r o Onia, cerca de Bolero, al Norte de Mesa Bolvar, 545915 m., mayo de 1944 (Steyermark 56736)햒. Holotype: VEN.

Mikania kavanayensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 300 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] Edo. Bolvar: Gran Sabana, entre la Misi n de Sta. Teresita de Kavanayen y el Ro Karuai, 1200 m., octubre 26 de 1944 (J. Steyermark 59374). Holotype: VEN.

Mikania ptaretepuiensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 302 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] 풑Edo. Bolvar: cerro Petare-tepui, 24102450 m., noviembre 7 de 1944, (J. Steyermark 59936)햒. Holotype: VEN.

Milkania meridana V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 303 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] Edo. Mrida: Monta a de San Jacinto al norte del ro Chama, 21952375 m., mayo 19 de 1944 (J. Steyermark 56667)햒. Holotype: VEN.

Mikania bergantinensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 303 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] Edo. Anzotegui: bosques nublados de Fila Grande, cabeceras de la Quebrada La Tigra, Cerro de San Jos , entre Bergantn y el Cerro Peonia (Cerro Los Pajariros), 18001850 m. marzo 19 de 1945 (J. Steyermark 61540)햒. Holotype: VEN.

Mikania banisteriae DC. forma lehmanniana (Hieron.) Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28(3): 657 (1953).

Bolivia (La Paz), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Venezuela.

Mikania banisteriae DC. forma lehmanniana (Hieron.) Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28(3): 657 (1953) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania bergantinensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 303 (1946) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania berteriana Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 423 (1826) = Fleishmannia microstemon (Cass.) R. M. King & H. Rob.

Mikania biformis Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 254 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn., non DC. = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania boliviensis Sch.Bip. Linnaea 34: 535 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. = Mikania schultzii B. L. Rob.

Mikania boliviensis Lingelsh., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7(146/148): 251 (1909) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania brachiata Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 53 (1845) = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

Mikania brachypoda DC., Prodr. 5: 201 (1836) = Mikania officinalis Mart.

*Mikania buchtienii B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 7 (1922). Type: Bolivia: Polo-Polo near coroico in Prov. Nor-Yungas, alt. 1100 m., Dr. Otto Buchtien, nos. 3935 (TYPE, N.Y., phot. and fragm. Gr.) and 3936 (N.Y., phot. Gr.). Holotype: NY; isotypes: GH (fragment), US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania canaguensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 9: 132 (1944) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania carnulosa DC., Prodr. 5: 197 (1836) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania caudata Benth., Pl. Hartweg. : 201 (1845) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania caustolepis B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 77: 49 (1926) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania cercifolia W. C. Holmes Phytologia, 51(4): 233 (1982). Type: Bolivia: Gran Poder, small gold mine ca 40 km N or Sorata, in narrow wooded valley below Tacacoma (long. 68-30 W, lat. 15-30 S), damp shady slope, alt. ca 3000 m, 4 Jun 1950, Brooke 6442. Holotype: BM.

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz).

Paratype: Bolivia: Cochabamba, near Cerveceria Colon, Quebrada Colon, 20 km E of Cochabamba, on riverbank in tangled tall Compositae, Salvia, Datura, Cleome, etc., perennial herb, procumbent, rays dark brown, 14 Mar 1939, Eyerdam 24771 (GH, UC).

*Mikania cinnamomifolia Lingelsh., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 251 (1909) = Mikania dioscoreoides (Rusby) B. L. Rob.

Mikania cissampelina DC., Prodr. 5: 195 (1836) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania cocaensis Gardner, London J. Bot. 5: 487 (1846) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

*Mikania cochabambana B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 90: 33 (1930). Type: Bolivia. Dept. Cochabamba: Prov. Chapare: borders of woodland, Quebrada de Corani, alt. 1800 m., June 22, 1929, Steinbach, no. 9878. Holotype: GH; isotype: S.

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

*Mikania comarapensis B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 90: 34 (1930). Type: Bolivia: Department of Santa Cruz: Yungas de San Mateo, Comparapa, alt. 2800 m., 25 Oct. 1925, Jos Steinbach, no. 8545. Holotype: GH; isotypes: K, S.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Mikania congesta DC., Prodr. 5: 197 (1836). Type: 钑Z in Porto-Ricco legit cl. Bertero. M. scandens ex Proto-Ricco Spreng.! syst. 3. p. 421 in h. Balb. ips. teste, sed excl. syn. ... (v.s. comm. cl. Balbis.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania sieberiana DC., Prodr. 5: 196 (1836). Type: ґZ in insul Trinitatis. Eupatorium Sieb.! fl. trin. exs. n. 225. ... (v.s. ex coll. Sieb.) Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania parkeriana DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836). Type: ⒑Z in Guian circa Demerari legit cl. Parker. ... (v.s. comm. cl. Parker.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania variabilis Gardner, London J. Bot. 5: 486 (1846), nom. illegit. non Meyen & Walp. (1843)(= Mikania micrantha Kunth). Types: Hab. Piassabisu, Province of Alagoas ([Gardner] n. 1344), and between Ico and Crato, Province of Cear ([Gardner] n. 1725), Brazil. Fl. April to Sept. Holmes (1993: 20) noted, referring only to Gardner 1344, holotype: K failing to account for the other syntype.

Mikania atriplicifolia Sch.Bip. ex Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 189 (1851). Type: [Surinam:] In sylva prope Vredenburgerkreek m. Octobri legit cl. Focke. Holmes (1993: 20) cited holotype: BREM?.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. d congesta (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876).

Willoughbya scandens (L.) Kuntze var. congesta (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 184 (1898).

*Mikania micrantha Kunth f. congesta (DC.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 43 (1922). Note: Holmes (1993: 20) attributed this forma to M. scandens, whereas Robinson had clearly assigned it to M. micrantha.

Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, N South America to Peru, Bolivia (?), Brazil.

Mikania consanguinea Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 448 (1847) = Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania convolvulacea DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania convolvulacea DC. var. b portoricensis DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

*Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3(1): 1746 (1804).

Cacalia cordifolia L.f., Suppl. : 351 (1781). Type: Habitat in America meridionali. D. Mutis. L. Holotype: Herb. LINN 976.5. Note: King & Robinson (1975: 970) considered this was Mutis 1818, a duplicate of which is apparently in US.

Mikania mollis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(ed. folio): 105 (1818). Type: Crescit in temperatis Regni Peruviani, in ripa fluminis Guancabamb, alt. 1027 hex. Floret Julio.槒 [B: n. 3532. Guancabamba] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Mikania suaveolens Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(ed. folio): 106 (1818). Type: [Colombia:] Crescit in umbrosis, humidis prope Guarumo. (Regno Novo-Granatensi.) L Floret Majo. [B: mss. n. 1669. Mariquita]. Holotype: B-Bonpl; isotype: B-W.

Mikania loxensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(ed. folio): 106 (1818). Type: [Colombia:] Crescit locis temperatis Regni Novo-Granatensis inter Alto de Pulla et urbem Loxa, alt. 1100 hex. K? Floret Julio.

Mikania rubiginosa Smith in Rees, Cycl. 23. Mikania N. 12.(1819). Type: Native of South America? Of this we have seen but an imperfect specimen in the Linnaean herbarium, on which there is no mark to indicate its native country. The relevant sheet in LINN is 976.5 which is simply annotated Cacalia [quadriflora which is crossed out] varit. fol. integerrim./ Eupator [which is crossed out]. The sheet is also the type of Cacalia cordifolia L.f.

Mikania opifera Mart. in Spix & Mart., Reise Bras.1: 279 (1823). Type: not cited. Note: The protologue to this name appeared in a list of medicinal plants titled Anmerkungen zum zweiten Kapitel. Folgende Pflanzen sind ihres Gebrauches wegen in der Capitanie von S. Paul allegemein bekannt: Holotype: M.

Mikania poeppigii Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 422 (1826). Type: Cuba. (M. denticulata Pppig.). Holotype: P; isotype: W.

Mikania cissampelina DC., Prodr. 5: 195 (1836). Type: Z in Sancto Domingo. ... (v.s.)[Coulon s.n.]. Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania carnulosa DC., Prodr. 5: 197 (1836). Type: L Z in Brasiliae montibus Macahe prope Rio-Janeiro mense julio flor legit cl. Lund. ... (v.s. comm. cl. inv.). Holotype: G-DC. Note: The material in G-DC is numbered and is probably Lund 403, but may well be 463 Җ the zero is pooly written.

Mikania gonoclada DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836). Types: L Z in Cub juxta Havanam in sylvis humidis legit cl. R. de la Sagra et in Mexico circa Tampico de Tamaulipas cl. Berlandier. ... (v.s. comm. cl. inv.). Note: Since there are four numbered de la Sagra collections in G-DC, 75, 199, 424 and 619, under Mikania gonoclada, but the Berlandier collection, 137, appears only under var. b ambigua DC., the proposed type selection by King & Robinson (1975: 970) Berlandier 137 and again by Holmes (1993: 22) is in error. If the previous authors selection is considered a lectotypification then this can only be of the varietal name, not that of the species.

Mikania gonoclada DC. var. b ambigua DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836). Types: Z in Mexico ad Tampico de Tamanlipas (Berl.! [137]), in Brasili circa Bahiam (Salzm. [25]! Blanch.![1551]) ... (v. s.). Syntypes: G-DC. Isosyntypes: Salzmann 25, K 2. Note: see above for confusion with regards typification of the species.

Mikania convolvulacea DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836). Type: L Z in Santo Domingo legit cl. Poiteau. ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania convolvulacea DC. var. b portoricensis DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836). Type: LZ in Porto-Ricco legit cl. Bertero. M. amara Bert.! herb. non Willd. M. cordifolia Spreng. ! in h. Balb. syst. 3. p. 423. excl. syn. ... (v.s.) Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania amara Bertero ex DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836), nom. nud. pro syn., non Willd. (1803) (= Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) H. Karst.)

Mikania fimbriata Gardner, London J. Bot. 4: 119 (1845). Type: Hab. Open bushy places on the Organ Mountains, at an elevation of about 4000 feet. Fl. March. [Gardner] 5780.

Mikania cocaensis [as cordiformes [sic!] (Cocansis)] Gardner, London J. Bot. 5: 487 (1846). Type: 뒑Hab. Near Cocaes, Province of Minas Geraes, Brazil. Fl. in August. [Gardner] 4887. [NB. This is in error as typographically Cordiformes was intended to indicate the Section of Mikania and Cocansis the specific epithet.

Mikania thunbergiifolia Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 448 (1847). Type: [Brazil:] 뒑Hab. Bushy places, near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Goyaz. April, 1840. [Gardner] 4230.

Mikania surinamensis Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 188 (1851). Type: [Surinam:] Prope plantationem La Rencontre m. Aprili legit. cl. Focke. Holotype: U.

Mikania hostmanii Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 189 (1851). Type: [Surinam:] Specimen mancum in Herb. Hostm. sub n. 717 inveni. Holotype (according to Holmes, 1993: 22): K; isotype: BM.

Mikania biformis Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 254 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn., non DC.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. h rhodotricha Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 250 (1876). Types: [Brazil:] Prov. Rio de Janeiro: Gardner n. 60, Tweedie. Holmes (1993: 22) indicated that the holotype was the Gardner collection. Since Holmes had determined two Gardner duplicates in K a full lectotypification is still necessary here, rather than regarding Holmes earlier attempt as lectotypification. Lectotype (selected here): Gardner 60 (ex herb. Hookerianum); isolectotypes: BM, K (ex herb. Benthamianum), NY, P. The Tweedie syntype is also at K.

Mikania fendleri Klatt, Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 15: 324 (1882) [p. 4 in separately paginated pre-print in K]. Type: Hab: Chagres, Isthmus of Panama, leg. Fendler No. 151. Holotype: P; isotypes: GH, K 2.

Willoughbya cordifolia (L.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Mikania vellosiana Barb. Rodr., Hort. Flum. : 276 (1894), nom. illegit. (citing Cacalia pilosa Vell.)

Willugbaeya halei Small, Fl. S. E. U. S.: 1170. Type: In low grounds, Louisiana. p. 1338: Type, La. Hale, no. 342, in Herb. C. U. . Holotype: NY. Note: C. U. = Columbia University now in NY

Mikania yapsensis B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 48 (1934). Type: Peru: Dept. Junn: Pichis Trail, Yapas, alt. 1350-1600 m., June 28-29, 1929, Killip & Smith, no. 25,493. Holotype: GH.

Mikania huitzensis Standley & Steyerm., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 23: 260 (1947). Type: 풑Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenaugo: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Cerro Huitz, between Munanhuitz ans Yulhuitz, alt. 1,500-2,500 meters, July 14, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 48662. Holotype: F.

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija). S E United States, Mexico, Central America, West Indies, South America.

Cora o, Erva-de-cabra, Erva-de-sapo, Guaco (Cabrera & Klein, 1991); Erva de cobra, Erva de sapo, Guaco, Matacampo, Pompero-kocho (Freire et al., 2006); Guko, Matacampo, Pombeo koch , Ysypo kat (Holmes & McDaniel, 1996).

Mikania cryptodonta B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 73: 22 (1924) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania cumingii Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 82 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 535 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 264 and Cuming 102) = Ophryosporus cumingii Benth. ex Baker

Mikania cuneata Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(4): 54 (1856), nom. nud. = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

*Mikania decora Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 53 (1845). Type: [Peru:] Crescit in sylvis ad Cuchero. Florebat Januario.푒

Willoughbya bangii Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 53 (1891). Type: Yungas, 1890 ([Bang] 639 a). = Matthew[s], Peru, 1737, and Lechler 2315, fide Britton. Isosyntypes (Matthews 1717): K 2. Isosyntype (Bang 639 a): US.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Mikania dentata Spreng., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 3: 422 (1826), sensu auctt., non M. dentata G. M. Barroso (1959), nom. illegit. = Mikania ternata (Vell.) B. L. Rob.

*Mikania desmocephala B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 7 (1922). Type: Bolivia: near Yungas [i.e. within or near the boundaries of the province so called], alt. 1220 m., Rusby, no. 1740. Robinson merely quoted N.Y., photo. and fragm. Gr. Whilst not specifying the holotype, for practicality it is taken that the material in NY is the holotype, that in GH the isotype (fragment of holotype). Note: quotation in square brackets is from Robinson (1922: 8).

Mikania desmocephala B. L. Rob. var. peruviana B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 77: 50 (1926). Type: Peru: Dept. Junin: on sunny brush, La Merced, Hacienda Schunke, alt. 1220 m., Aug. 27-Sept. 1, 1923. J. Francis Macbride, no. 5776. Holotype: F; isotypes: GH, K.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

*Mikania dictyota B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 68: 37 (1923). Type: Bolivia: Unduavi, Nor Yungas, in the Andean region, 3200 m., alt., Dr. Otto Buchtien, no. 4762. Syntypes: GH, US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

*Mikania dioscoreoides (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 97 (1922).

Willoughbya dioscoreoides Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 6(1): 58 (1896). Type: [Bolivia:] Vic. Cochabamba, 1891 ([Bang] 1256). Holotype: NY; isotype: K.

*Mikania cinnamomifolia Lingelsh., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 251 (1909). Types: Bolivien: San Carlos bei Mapiri, Wlder, 750 m (Buchtien, no. 1398!, 1508!). Isosyntype (Buchtien 1398): US (but marked as isotype by B. L. Robinson!). Isosyntype: Buchtien 1508, Z (000003663).

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz).

*Mikania eucosma B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 9 (1922). Type: 䒑Bolivia: Yungas, alt. 1830 m., Rusby, no. 1736. Syntypes: NY, GH (fragment), i.e. no type specified as in other new taxa of Robinson. Duplicate also in US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania fendleri Klatt, Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 15: 324 (1882) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

*Mikania ferruginea (Rusby) Rusby ex B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 101 (1922).

Willoughbya ferruginea Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 6(1): 58 (1896). Types: [Bolivia:] Between Guanai and Tipuani, Apr.June, 1892 ([Bang] 1419). The same as Jamesons 5095. Syntypes: ?. Isosyntype: Bang 1419, Z 2 (000003665, 000003666).

*Mikania ferruginea (Rusby) Rusby ex B. L. Rob. var. subglabra B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 36 (1934). Type: Bolivia: Mapiri Region at San Carlos, alt. 850 m., May 24, 1927, Buchtien, no. 1576. Holotype: GH; isotype: NY (215194), US.

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz).

King & Robinson (1987) viewed this as a distinct species, endemic to Bolivia, compared with the account in the Flora of Panama (King & Robinson, 1975) where M. ferruginea was considered a synonym of M. banisteriae DC. The reference to Santa Cruz was based on a Pearce collection at K referred to by Robinson (1922: 102) although Pearce

*Mikania ferruginea (Rusby) Rusby ex B. L. Rob. var. subglabra B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 36 (1934) = Mikania ferruginea (Rusby) Rusby ex B. L. Rob.

*Mikania fiebrigii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40(3): 390 (1908). Type: Bolivia: habitat prope Pinos haud procul ab urbe Tarija et prope Chiquiaca, alt. s. m. 10002200 m (K. Fiebrich [sic!] n. 3132; 11. m. Martii 1904). Holotype: B; isotype: K, US (01157931). Note: it is quite clear this is a Fiebrig collection.

Mikania saltensis Hieron. var. stipulata Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst., 50, Beibl. 111: 77 (1913) appears in Hieronymus treatment of Weberbauers collections and is simply linked to M. fiebrigii as a synonym; Hieronymus varietal name is nom. nud.

Bolivia (Tarija).

Mikania fimbriata Gardner, London J. Bot. 4: 119 (1845) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

*Mikania flaccida B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 9 (1922). Type: Bolivia: Polo-Polo near Coroico, Prov. Nor-Yungas, alt. 1100 m., Oct. and Nov. 1912, Dr Otto Buchtien, no. 3951. Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania fockeana Miq., Linnaea 17: 68 (1843) = *Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania gabrieli Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 235 (1876) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania glastifolia Mart. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 321 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn. = Raulinoreitzia crenulata (Spreng.) R. M. King & H. Rob.

Mikania glechomifolia Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn. = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania gonoclada DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania gonoclada DC. var. b ambigua DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836)= Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania gracilis Sch.Bip. ex Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 187 (1851) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania grandifolia Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 246 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn. = Mikania vitifolia DC.

*Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 2: 84 (1809). Type: Habitat in Nova Granada. [Humbold & Bonpland 1447] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Mikania huaco Rieux ex Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 422 (1826), nom. nud.

? Mikania attenuata DC., Prodr., 5: 195 (1836). Type: in Perviae montibus Guanoccensibus legit cl. Haenke. ... (v.s. in h. Haenke ab ill. de Sternberg comm.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania aspera Miq., Linnaea 17: 68 (1843). Type: Crescit Surinami in sylvis prope flumen Commewyne sup. Septembri fructifera lecta. [?Focke]

Mikania argyrostigma Miq., Linnaea 17: 69 (1843). Type: Crescit Surinami inter frutices; fl. Martio. [?Focke]

Mikania brachiata Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 53 (1845). Type: Crescit in sylvis Peruviae orientalis circum Tocache. Florebat Augusto. Holotype: W. Holmes (1990: 16) noted the type collection was Poeppig 2041, with a fragmentary isotype in F.

Mikania cuneata Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(4): 54 (1856), nom. nud. (based on Lechler 2477).

Mikania amara Willd. var. b guaco (Kunth) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 237 (1876).

Willoughbya guaco (Humb. & Bonpl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Mikania olivacea Klatt, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 31: 195 (1892). Type: [Costa Rica:] Forts de Buenos-Aires, janv. 1892, 2-300 m. (Pitt.[ier] no 4433). Holotype: BR; isotype: GH.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Surinam.

Mikania guatemalensis Stendl. & Steyerm., Publ. Field. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 23: 105 (1944) = Mikania houstoniana (L.) B. L. Rob.

*Mikania haenkeana DC., Prodr. 5: 196 (1836). Type: ꒑ in montanis Peruanis Orinocensibus legit cl. Haenke. ... (v.s. in h. Henk. ab. ill. de Sternberg comm.). Holotype: PR; isotype: G-DC.

Willoughbya haenkeana (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Mikania pellucidivenia Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 474 (1905). Types: Peruvia: crescit prope Tambillo (J.[elski] n. 600, 10. m. Aug. 1878; n. 642, 13. m. Aug. 1878).

Mikania monzonensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40: 391 (1908). Type: Peruvia: habitat prope Monzon, dep. Huanaco, prov. Huamalies, alt. s. m. 9001000 m, in silvis raris fruticetisque (A. Weberbauer n. 3430; 23. m. Julii 1903).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), Ecuador, Peru.

Mikania hexagona B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 196 (1911) = Mikania microptera DC.

Mikania hookeriana DC., Prodr. 5: 195 (1836). Type: bZ? in Guian. ... (v.s. in h. Lindl. cl. Hooker comm.). Note: There is one specimen in G-DC (fragments one leaf and a small part of an inflorescence). Rather surprisingly Holmes (1990: 17) has equated this with Schomburgk 479 and cited the fragmentary specimen in G-DC as the holotype, with a duplicate in K. There are two duplicates of this Schomburgk collection in K, one ex herb. Benthamianum, the other ex herb. Hookerianum, and both are clearly marked Schomburgk 1837, the former on a script label, the other written on the sheet itself. This coincides with Schomburgks expeditions to British Guiana and were probably collected in 1837 (rather than distributed then), one year after the publication of de Candolles Prodromus volume 5. It is also worth noting comments in Benthams first paper on Schomburgks plants (Ann. Nat. Hist. 2(8): 105111. Oct. 1838) covering part of the Compositae. Schomburgk 479 is mentioned alongside Mikania Hookeriana. DC. Prod. 5. p. 195. (p. 109). Bentham enumerated Schomburgks Compositae collections following the volume five of the Prodromus. It is highly unlikely that Schomburgk material was used to describe this species. Type material may well exist in CGE.

Mikania badieri DC., Prodr. 5: 194 (1836). Type: L Z in Guadalup legit olim Badier [137]; an fort etiam in Jamaic si Eupat. houstonis Swartz obs. p. 300 huc referendum. ... (v.s.). The Badier material is in G-DC.

*Mikania platyphylla DC., Prodr. 5: 195 (1836). Type: ⒑Z in Peruvi? ex coll. Poeppig [2184]. ... (v.s. comm. cl. inv.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania imrayana Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. I. : 363 (1861). Type: Hab. Dominica!, Imr[ay]. Holotype: K; isotype/s: K ?2. Note: the material that is supposedly the holotype (ex Herb. Hookerianum) bears a label in part by Imray, but completed with the specific epithet by Grisebach. There are two potential isotypes in K, one clearly an Imray collection, numbered 111 on the sheet itself, and a second sheet bears a label apparently written entirely by Grisebach, although purportedly also an Imray collection but without a number. There is a duplicate of Imray 52 in GOET.

Willoughbya imrayana (Griseb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Willoughbya platyphylla (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Mikania badieri DC. var. b kittsiana Urb., Symb. Antill. 5(2): 220 (May 1907). Type: Hab. in St. Kitts in faucibus sylvaticis ad Belmont, m. Sept. Oct. fl. et fr.: Britton et Cowell n. 385. Holotype: ?US; isotypes: K, NY, US. Holmes (1990: 17) indicated that the holotype was in US.

Mikania vitrea B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 61: 22 (1920). Type: Venezuela: Colonia Tovar in the State of Aragua, alt. 1983 m., August Fendler, no. 2349. Holotype: GH; isotypes: G, K, PH.

Mikania hylibates B. L. Rob., Cont. Gray Herb. 77: 52 (1926). Type: Costa Rica: large woody vine in wet forests; leaves thick; flowers white, El Mueco, south of Navarro, Province of Carago, alt. about 1400 m., Feb 8, 9, 1924, Paul C. Standley, no. 33,848. Holotype: US; isotype: GH (fragment of holotype).

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. badieri (DC.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 52 (1934).

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. var. kittsiana (Urb.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 52 (1934).

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. platyphylla (DC.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 52 (1934).

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. cardiophylla B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 53 (1934). Type: St. Vincents, Lesser Antilles, H. H. & G. W. Smith, no. 1890񒑒. Holotype: GH; isotype: K.

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. crassicaulis Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28(3): 658 (1953). Type: [Venezuela:] Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepui, steep wooded slopes just below dry ridge and shrubby growth, southeast-facing slopes, state of Bolvar, alt. 1585-1600 m., November 10-11, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60015, vine with thickened fleshy flowering axis; leaves coriaceous, deep green above, pale green below퓔 . Holotype: F.

Belize, Bolivia (?), Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guadaloupe, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. badieri (DC.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 52 (1934) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. cardiophylla B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 53 (1934) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. crassicaulis Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 658 (1953) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. kittsiana (Urb.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 52 (1934) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania hookeriana DC. var. platyphylla (DC.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 52 (1934) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania hostmanii Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 189 (1851) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania houstoniana (L.) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42: 47 (1906).

Eupatorium houstonianum L., Sp. Pl.: 836 (1753). Type: [Mexico:] Habitat in Vera Cruce. Lectotype (selected by King & Robinson in Woodson & Schery, 1975: 973): Herb. Clifford: 396, Eupatorium 6 (BM-000646954); isolectotype: MW).

Eupatorium fruticosum Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8: Eupatorium no. 6 (1768). Type: [Mexico:] The sixth sort grows naturally at La Vera Cruz in America, from whence the late Dr. Houston sent me the seeds. Holotype: BM see type of Eupatorium houstonianum L. cited above.

Mikania houstonis Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1742 (1803). Type: Habitat in Vera Cruce, Jamaica inter fruticeta. L. Holotype: B-W (15085). Note: there are apparently two labels on this single sheet, one numbered 448, the other 1169, the former with Humboldt) written on it.

Willoughbya houstonis (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 373 (1891).

Mikania guatemalensis Standl. & Steyerm., Publ. Field. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 23: 105 (1944). Type: Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Puerto Barrios, at sea level, February 25, 1905, C. C. Deam 40. Holotype: F.

Mikania sanjacintensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 298 (1946). Type: [Venezuela:] Edo. Mrida: Monta a de San Jacinto, al norte del ro Chama, 21952375 m., mayo 19 de 1944 (J. Steyermark 56665)햒. Holotype: VEN; isotype: F. Note: King & Robinson (1987: 556) included this name within the synonymy of M. hookeriana, a different position to that held by Holmes (1990).

Bolivia (?), Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela.

Mikania houstonis Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1742 (1803) = Mikania houstoniana (L.) B. L. Rob.

Mikania huaco Rieux ex Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 422 (1826), nom. nud. = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

Mikania huitzensis Standley & Steyerm., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 23: 260 (1947) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania hylibates B. L. Rob., Cont. Gray Herb. 77: 52 (1926) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania imrayana Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. I. : 363 (1861) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania karuaiensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 296 (1946) = Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania kavanayensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 300 (1946) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

*Mikania lanuginosa DC., Prodr. 5: 201 (1836). Type: Z in brasiliae prov. Sancti-Pauli. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 425 miss.). Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC (fragments of a leaf and a portion of an inflorescence).

Willoughbya lanuginosa (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Bolivia (?), Brazil, Venezuela.

Cip -cabeludo, Micnia (Cabrera & Klein, 1991).

Mikania lechleri Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(5): 54 (1856), nom. nud.= Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania lechleri Sch.Bip. ex B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 90: 35 (1930) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

*Mikania leucophylla (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 196 (1911).

Willoughbya leucophylla Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 382 (1907). Type: [Bolivia:] ([Bang] No. 2241.)⑒ Holotype: NY; isotypes: K, US, Z (000053953).

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz).

Mikania lima Schltdl. ex Mart., Flora 4, 2 Beibl..: 110 (1841) = Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania lindleyana DC., Prodr. 5: 195 (1836). Type: Z in Guian. ... (v. s. in h. Lindl. cl. Hooker comm.). Holotype: ?CGE; isotype: G-DC (fragments).

Willoughbya lindleyana (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Bolivia (La Paz), Brazil, Guyana, ?Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela.

Micnia-de-lindley (Cabrera & Klein, 1991).

*Mikania longiacuminata (Rusby) Rusby ex B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 103 (1922).

Willoughbya longiacuminata Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 6(1): 59 (1896). Type: [Bolivia:] Mapiri, July⑖Aug., 1892 ([Bang] 1504). Holotype: NY; isotypes: K, US, Z (000003670).

Bolivia (La Paz).

*Mikania longiflora (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 196 (1911).

Willoughbya longiflora Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 382 (1907). Types: [Bolivia:] Climbing 8 to 10 ft. in forest shade, the flowers greenish-white; scarce. Calapampa, near Coroico, July 5, 1894. ([Bang] No. 2325.) Also no. 2297. Syntypes: K, NY, Z; isosyntype (Bang 2325): US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania loxensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(ed. folio): 106 (1818) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

*Mikania mandonii Sch.Bip., Linnaea 34(5): 536 (Feb. 1866) = Ophryosporus piquerioides (DC.) Benth. ex Baker

Mikania meridana V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 303 (1946) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

*Mikania micrantha Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 ed. folio): 105 (1818). Type: Crescit in umbrosis prope Caripe Cumanensium, alt. 412 hex. K Floret Septembri. [B: n. 235. Caripe, in umbrosis]. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Mikania orinocensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 ed. folio): 105 (1818). Type: Crescit in humidis Insul Pararuma. (Missiones del Orinoco.) L Floret Majo. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Mikania subcrenata Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1(No. 8): 243 (1836). Type: 撑Woods of Tucuman, Tweedie (n. 1189). Holotype: K.

Mikania variabilis Meyen & Walp., Nov. Actorum. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 257 (1843). Type: Peruvia: Lima. (v.s.). Holotype: B.

Mikania umbellifera Gardner, London J. Bot. 4: 119 (1845). Type: Hab. Bushy places, Organ Mountains, common at an elevation of about 4000 feet. Fl. March. [Gardner] 483.

Mikania subcymosa Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 448 (1847). Type: Hab. Bushy places near Villa de Natividade, Province of Goyaz. February, 1840. [Gardner] 3271. Holotype: BM; isotypes: K, US. Note: Holmes (1990: 24) noted holotype K; isotypes: NY, P, US.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. a subcymosa (Gardner) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876).

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. g umbellifera (Gardner) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876).

Mikania glechomifolia Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn.

Willoughbya variabilis (Meyen & Walp.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 373 (1891).

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. hirsuta Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19(1): 47 (1894). Type: Colimbia: crescit in fruticetis apertis in valle Cauca prope Cali et Quilichao, alt. s. m. 10001300 m ([Lehmann] n. 4888). Floret mense Julio. Holotype: B; isotypes: K 2.

Willoubya micrantha (Kunth) Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4(3): 211 (1895).

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. villosa Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 473 (1905). Types: Peruvia: crescit prope Tambillo (J[elski]. n. 600, 640, 641, 695, 10. et 23. m. Aug. 1878). Syntypes: B.

*Mikania sinuata Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 127 (1912). Types: [Bolivia:] San Juan, 3200 ft., March 20, 1902 ([R.S. Williams] No. 207)./ The same as Rusbys No. 1648. Syntypes: K, NY. Isosyntype (Williams 207): US. Note: Holmes (1990: 24) effectively lectotypified this name by stating, based on Williams 207, (holotype: NY!; isotype: US!); no mention was made of the Rusby syntype.

Argentina, Bolivia (Ben, La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Venezuela, West Indies. Naturalized in southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, India, Hong Kong, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Samoa, etc.

Santa Cruz: Churchill & Arroyo 21493.

Note: Holmes (1990: 24 & 41) included Mikania denticulata (Willd.) Vahl within the synonymy of M. micrantha but noting problems in interpreting Vahls Eupatorium denticulatum; it has been left out of the synonymy above. If it were to be included this would clearly, should type material ever be found to confirm its identity, have priority over the name presently applied, M. micrantha.

Bejuco, Charru , Guaco, Isip, Pompero-kocho (Freire et al., 2006); Pombero koch (Holmes & McDaniel, 1996).

*Mikania micrantha Kunth f. congesta (DC.) B. L. Rob., = Mikania congesta DC.

*Mikania microptera DC., Prodr. 5: 196 (1836). Types: Z in Brasili prope Bahiam (Blanchet! n. 1710) et in Peruvi ? (ex coll. Poeppig! [2335]). ... (v.s.). Syntypes: G-DC. Lectotype (effectively selected by Holmes, 1982: 237): Blanchet 1710, G-DC; isolectotypes: K, MO. Note: Holmes citation of Blanchet 1710 as the holotype constitutes lectotypification, although still cited as a holotype by various authors (e.g. Smith, 2005: 833).

Mikania hexagona B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 196 (1911). Type: Near Tovar, Venezuela, 1854-55, altitude 1700 m., A. Fendler, no. 626. Holotype: GH.

Bolivia (?), Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Guayana, Surinam, tropical west Africa to Zaire, Angola, Tanzania.

Mikania molinensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 296 (1946) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania mollis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(ed. folio): 105 (1818) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania monzonensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40(3): 391 (1908) = Mikania haenkeana DC.

Mikania moyobambensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40(3): 393 (1908) = *Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania niederleinii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22(45): 792 (1897) = Mikania periplocifolia Hook. & Arn.

*Mikania officinalis Mart. in Spix & Mart., Reise Bras. 1: 283 (1823). Type: not cited. Note: The protologue to this name appeared in a list of medicinal plants titled Anmerkungen zum zweiten Kapitel. Folgende Pflanzen sind ihres Gebrauches wegen in der Capitanie von S. Paul allegemein bekannt: Holotype: M.

Mikania brachypoda DC., Prodr. 5: 201 (1836). Type: L in Brasiliae prov. Sancti-Pauli. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 406 miss.). Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC (fragments ퟍ one leaf and a few florets).

Willoughbya officinalis (Mart.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil.

Cora o-de-jesus, Guaco, Guaco-da-serra (Cabrera & Klein, 1991).

Mikania olivacea Klatt, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 31: 195 (1892) = Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl.

Mikania oniaensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 297 (1946) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania opifera Mart. in Spix & Mart., Reise Bras. 1: 279 (1823) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

*Mikania oreimeles B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 68: 39 (1923). Type: Bolivia: Dept. Cochabamba: Espirito Santo, 1891, Bang, no. 1267. Holotype: GH; isotypes: F, MO, NY, PH, US.

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz).

The following collections were cited as paratypes: Dept. La Paz: Orv. Nor Yungas, in thickets, Unduavi, alt. 3300 m., Buchtien, no. 198 (N.Y.); also in woods at same locality, alt. 3200 m., Buchtien, nos. 683 (U.S., fragm. Gr.) and 4183 (U.S., Gr.).

Mikania orinocensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 ed. folio): 105 (1818) = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania parkeriana DC., Prodr. 5: 199 (1836) = Mikania congesta DC.

Mikania parviflora (Aubl.) H. Karst., Deut. Fl. : 1061 (1880-1883).

Eupatorium parviflorum Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2: 797 (1775), non Sw. (1788)(= Critonia paviflora DC.). Type: Habitat in Guiana ad ripam rivuli, in territorio Oyac. ...Jai trouv cette plante en fleur & en fruit dans le mois dAo t. au bord dun ruisseau, sur lhabitation de Madame Bertier. Holotype: ?P-JJR.

Eupatorium amarum Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 93 (1794), nom. illegit., citing Eupatorium paviflorum Aub. in synon. [Note: The following collections were cited: In Caribaeis legit Dn. Martfelt, in Surinamo Dn. Rolander.]

Mikania amara (Vahl) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1744 (1803).

Bolivia (Pando, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Cayenne, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.

Mikania pellucidivenia Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36: 474 (1905) = Mikania haenkeana DC.

*Mikania pennellii B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 61: 19 (1920). Type: Colombia: shaded roadside between Villavicencio and Buenavista, Intendencia Meta, alt. 700-900 m., Dr. F. W. Pennell, no. 1649. Syntypes: GH, NY.

Bolivia (?La Paz), Colombia.

Note: Robinson (1923: 40) noted under Mikania pennellii that the species had been found amongst Buchtien collections recently purchased by the United States National Herbarium. It proves, in fact, to be the plant collected by Dr. Buchtien at San Carlos near Mapiri, Bolivia, as his no. 1554, and reported in his Contrib. Fl. Boliv. i. 190 (1910) as M. hastata (L.) Willd., of which the determination was doubted on geographic ground by the writer

*Mikania periplocifolia Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1(No. 8): 243 (1836). Type: [Argentina:] Marshes about Buenos Ayres and Rio Grande, Tweedie.

Mikania auricularis Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 170 (1874); Pl. Lorentz.: 123 (1874). Type: [Argentina: ] Cordoba, in fruticetis et sepibus pr. urbem, floribus suaveolentibus. Holotype: Lorentz 244, GOET.

Willoughbya scandens (L.) Kuntze var. periplocifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891).

Mikania niederleinii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 22(45): 792 (1897). Type: [Argentina] Misiones: auf dem Cerro de Santa Ana (Niederl., 17. Mrz 1884, n. 143). Holotype: B.

Mikania scandens (L.) Kuntze var. sagittifolia Hassler, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(22/24): 368 (1913). Type: [Paraguay:] ퟙGran Chaco: Herba scandens inter gamina 0,51 m longa, in campis humidis Loma Clavel, flor. mens. Nov.; Hassler no. 2494. Holotype: G.

Argentina, Bolivia (?), Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay.

Entredadera de campo, Guaco, Guaco del ro, Loconte, Nakol , Tapa cerco (Freire et al., 2006).

Mikania perstipulata W. Holmes, Phytologia 58(4): 243 (1985). Type: Bolivia. Cochabamba, Incachaca, small power station about 80 miles NE of Cochabamba, 17-00 S, 65-30 W, 8000 ft., 16 Aug 1950, W. M. A. Brooke 6717. Holotype: BM.

Bolivia (Cochabamba).

*Mikania phyllopoda Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 170 (1874); Pl. Lorentz.: 122 (1874) = Mikania urticifolia Hook. & Arn.

*Mikania platyphylla DC., Prodr. 5: 195 (1836) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

Mikania poeppigii Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 422 (1826) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania polybotrys G. Don ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 266 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn. = *Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania polystachya DC., Prodr. 5: 190 (1836) = *Mikania psilostachya DC.

*Mikania psilostachya DC., Prodr. 5: 190 (1836). Type: LZ in Peruvi ex coll. Poeppig.[2344] ... (v.s. comm. cl. invent.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania polystachya DC., Prodr. 5: 190 (1836). Type: L Z in convallibus et paludosis circa Bahiam legerunt cl. Salzmann [11] et Blanchet (n. 1033 et 1885!). ... (v.s.). Syntypes: G-DC. Isosyntypes: Salzmann 11, K 2.

Mikania scabra DC., Prodr. 5: 190 (1836). Type: L Z in Cayenn olim legit cl. Patris (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC.

Mikania racemulosa Benth., Ann. Nat. Hist. 2(8): 109 (Oct. 1838), non Klatt (1882)(= M. nigropunctulata Hieron.). Type: ퟙBritish Guiana. Schomburgk, n. 480. Holotype: K; isotype: US.

Mikania racemulosa Benth., J. Bot. (Hooker) 2(9): 41 (1840). Note: Cited by King & Robinson (1987) this is actually a reptition of the earlier protologue, q.v.

Mikania lima Schltdl. ex Mart., Flora 24, Beibl. 2(6): 110 (1841). Note: The diagnosis provided (Suffrutex, ramis volubilis) would hardly qualify as sufficient, even in 1841, to distinguish this as a new species and is best regarded as a nom. nud. In the context used in the rest of this paper is was probably not intended as a new species name. The locality provided by Martius was: [Brazil:] Prope Pari in prov. Cujabensi, Junio. under Mart. Herb. Fl. Bras. 700, was based on a Manso collection now in BR.

Mikania fockeana Miq., Linnaea 17: 68 (1843). Type: Crescit Surinami in districto Parae; fl. Martio et Aprili. [Focke]

Mikania consanguinea Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 448 (1847). Type: Hab. Bushy places, near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Goyaz. March, 1840. [Gardner] 4228.

Mikania psilostachya DC. var. b scabra (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 265 (1876).

Mikania psilostachya DC. var. g racemulosa (Benth.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 266 (1876).

Mikania polybotrys G. Don ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 266 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn.

Willoughbya polystachya (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 372 (1891). NB. Kuntze included M. psilostachya DC. and M. scabra DC. under this synonym and did not provide the combinations W. psilostachya and W. scabra as indicated by King & Robinson, 1987: 573!

Mikania moyobambensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40(3): 393 (1908). Type: Peruvia: crescit prope oppidum Moyobamba, dep. Loreto, alt. supra m. 800900 m in fruticetis campestribus (A. Weberbauer n. 4476; 7. m. Aug. 1904). Holotype: B.

Mikania karuaiensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 296 (1946). Type: [Venezuela: ] Edo. Bolvar: La Gran Sabana, entre la Misi n de Santa Teresita, de Kavanayn y el r o Karuai, 1220 m. octubre 26 de 1944 (J. Steyermark 59372). Holotype: VEN.

Panama, South America S to Bolivia (Ben, La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil.

Mikania psilostachya DC. var. g racemulosa (Benth.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 266 (1876) = Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania psilostachya DC. var. b scabra (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 265 (1876) = Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania ptaretepuiensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 302 (1946) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania punctata Klatt, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 31: 195 (1892) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania racemulosa Benth., J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 41 (1840) = *Mikania psilostachya DC.

*Mikania rubella Lingelsh., Fedde Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7(146/148): 250 (1909). Type: Bolivien: San Carlos bei Mapiri, W lder, 750 m (Buchtien, no. 1552!). Holotype: B; isotype: US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania rubiginosa Smith in Rees, Cycl. 23. Mikania N. 12.(1819) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania ruiziana Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. 3: 53 (1845) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

Mikania ruiziana Poepp. var. lehmanniana Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19(1): 45 (1895) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

*Mikania rusbyi B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 18 (1922). Type: Bolivia: Prov. Nor Yungas: Unduavi, alt. 2440 m., Oct. 1885, Rusby, no. 1737. Holotype: NY; isotypes: GH(fragment), US.

Bolivia (La Paz).

at same locality [As holotype - Prov. Nor Yungas: Unduavi], Nov. 1900, alt. 3300 m., Buchtien, no. 3044. NY.

Mikania saltensis Hieron. var. stipulata Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst., 50, Beibl. 111: 77 (1913), nom. nud. = Mikania fiebrigii Hieron.

Mikania sanjacacintensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10: 298 (1946) = Mikania houstoniana (L.) B. L. Rob.

Mikania scabra DC., Prodr. 5: 190 (1836) = *Mikania psilostachya DC.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. d congesta (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876) = Mikania congesta DC.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. hirsuta Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19(1): 47 (1894)= Mikania micrantha (L.) Willd.

Mikania scandens (L.) Kuntze var. sagittifolia Hassler, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(22/24): 368 (1913) = Mikania periplocifolia Hook. & Arn.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. a subcymosa (Gardner) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876) = Mikania micrantha (L.) Willd.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. g umbellifera (Gardner) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 249 (1876)= Mikania micrantha (L.) Willd.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. var. villosa Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 473 (1905) = Mikania micrantha (L.) Willd.

*Mikania schultzii B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 19 (1922). Type: Bolivia: prov. Larecaja: in the upper (subalpine) part of the wooded region between Queliguaya and Chilieca, near Sorata, alt. 3200-3400 m., Mandon, no. 265. Holotype: GH; isotypes: K, NY, S.

Mikania boliviensis Sch.Bip. Linnaea, 34(5): 535 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 265)

Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz).

Prov. Nor yungas: in thickets, Unduavi, alt. 3300m., Buchtien, no. 198. NY.

Mikania serratifolia Sieber ex DC., Prodr. 5: 181 (1836), nom. nud. pro syn. non Kunth = Condylidium iresinoides (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob.

Mikania sieberiana DC., Prodr. 5: 196 (1836) = Mikania congesta DC.

*Mikania sinuata Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 127 (1912) = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania skutchii S. F. Blake, Brittonia 2(4): 333 (1937) = Mikania banisteriae DC.

*Mikania speciosa DC., Prodr. 5: 196 (1836). Type: LZ in peruanis montibus Orinocensibus legit cl. Haenke. ... (v.s. in h. Haenk. ab ill. de Sternberg comm.). Holotype: PR; isotype: G-DC.

Willoughbya speciosa (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 373 (1891).

Willoughbya hieronymi Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 383 (1907). Type: [Bolivia:] Prostrate in wet, clayey soil, the flowers bluish-green; scarce. Coripata, Yungas, April 28, 1894. ([Bang] No. 2169.) Holotype: NY; isotypes: K, US.

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz).

*Mikania steinbachii B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 80: 40 (1928). Type: Bolivia: Dept. Santa Cruz: Prov. Cercado: Baados del Piray, alt. 450 m., 18 July, 1924, Jose Steinbach, no. 6257. Holotype: K.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

*Mikania stygia B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 90: 36 (1930). Type: Bolivia: Dept. La Paz: region of Mapiri, alt. 850m., 12 May 1927, Dr Otto Buchtien, no. 1874񒑒. Holotype: GH; isotypes: K 2, S, US. Note: The K and US isotype material clearly indicates that this is Buchtien 1574, not 1874 as in the protologue, which is apparently in error.

Bolivia (La Paz).

Mikania suaveolens Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4(ed. folio): 106 (1818) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania subcrenata Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1(No. 8): 243 (1836) = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania subcymosa Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 448 (1847) = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania surinamensis Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 188 (1851) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania tenuiflora Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 174 (1879) = Austrobrickellia patens (Hook. & Arn.) R. M. King & H. Rob.

Mikania ternata (Vell.) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 198 (1911).

Mikania dentata Spreng., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 3: 422 (1826), sensu auctt., non M. dentata G. M. Barroso (1959), nom. illegit.

Cacalia ternata Vell., Fl. Flum. : 336 (1825)[1829]. Type: Habitat silvis maritimis Pharmacopolitanus. Floret Mart. [Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 56 (1831)].

Cacalia septemnata Vell., Fl. Flum.: 338 (1825)[1829]. Type: Flores jam erant decidui, cum eam offendi; sed ex habitu, et floris fragmento, quod superabat, Cacaliam esse cognovi. [Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 63 (1831)].

Mikania apiifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 202 (1836). Type: L Z in Brasiliae prov. Sancti-Pauli. ... (v. s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. a Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 421 miss.). Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC. Note: the material in G-DC is somewhat fragmentary and consists of part of one inflorescence and broken portions of leaves.

Mikania trifolia Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 82 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 535 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 266).

Willoughbya trifolia Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 382 (1907). Types: [Bolivia:] A low climber, with white flowers, in wet forest-mould, scarce. Coroico, September 10, 1894. ([Bang] No. 2426.) The same as Mandon 266, which Schultz-Bipontinus has called without description Mikania trifolia (Linnaea 34(5): 535. 1865-66). Syntypes: GH, K, NY; isosyntype (Bang 2426): MO, PH, US, Z (000053950); isosyntype (Mandon 266): S.

Mikania trifolia (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 198 (1911).

*Mikania trifolia (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 107 (1922), comb. superfl.

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), Brazil, Paraguay, Peru.

Note: The expanded synonymy includes M. trifolia which, upon close examination, is shown to be conspecific with the plant widespread in Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Holmes & McDaniel (1989) clarified the early synonymy of this taxon, although later pointing out that I had clarified that the material on which Mikania dentata Spreng. was based was in fact a species of Calea [HELIANTHEAE], C. pinnatifida (R. Br.) Less.

Micnia (Cabrera & Klein, 1991).

Mikania thunbergiifolia Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 448 (1847) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania trifolia (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 47: 198 (1911) = Mikania ternata (Vell.) B. L. Rob.

*Mikania trifolia (Rusby) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 107 (1922), comb. superfl. = Mikania ternata (Vell.) B. L. Rob.

Mikania trifolia Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 82 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 535 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. = Mikania ternata (Vell.) B. L. Rob.

Mikania umbellifera Gardner, London J. Bot. 4: 119 (1845) = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania urticifolia Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1(No. 8): 244 (1836). Type: [Argentina:] Woods of Tucuman, and also cultivated in the gardens, on account of its agreeable scent, the flowers smelling like a well-ripened Peach, Tweedie (n. 1286).

*Mikania phyllopoda Griseb., Abh. K nigl. Ges. Wiss. Gttingen 19([1]): 170 (1874); Pl. Lorentz.: 122 (1874). Type: [Argentina: ] Cordoba, pr. Ascochinga, in fruticetis ornamentum suaveolens. Holotype: Lorentz 242, GOET.

Willoughbya phyllopoda (Griseb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 184 (1898).

Argentina, Bolivia (?).

Mikania variabilis Meyen & Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 257 (1843) = Mikania micrantha Kunth

Mikania variabilis Gardner, London J. Bot. 5: 486 (1846), nom. illegit. non Meyen & Walp. (1843) = Mikania congesta DC.

Mikania vellosiana Barb. Rodr., Hort. Flum. : 276 (1894), nom. illegit. = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Mikania vitifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 202 (1836). Type: in Brasiliae prov. Sancti-Pauli. ... (v.s. in h. Mus. reg. Par. Mus. imp. Bras. sub n. 426 miss.). Holotype: P; isotype: G-DC (somewhat fragmentary consisting of an inflorescence, part of one leaf and a segment of stem).

Mikania gracilis Sch.Bip. ex Miq., Stirp. Surinam. Select. : 187 (1851). Type: [Surinam:] ґPlantam scandentem, floribus candidis, in virgultis detexerunt Hostmann et Kappler (Herb. n. 1017). Holotype (as cited by Holmes, 1990: 39): G; isotype: F.

Mikania lechleri Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(5): 54 (1856), nom. nud. (based on Lechler 2480).

Mikania grandifolia Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 246 (1876), nom. nud. pro syn.

Willoughbya vitifolia (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 373 (1891).

Mikania punctata Klatt, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 31: 195 (1892). Types: [Costa Rica:] Clairires du G nral, 600 m., janv. 1891 (Pitt. no 3434); [Argentina: ] bords dun ruisseau Buenos Aires, janv. 1892 ([Pittier] no 4934). Syntypes: ?BR.

Mikania boliviensis Lingelsh., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7(146/148): 251 (1909). Type: Bolivien: San Carlos bei Mapiri, 750 m (Buchtien, no. 1553!). Holotype: WRSL; isotype: US. Note: Holmes (1990: 39) cited Buchtien 71 against this name, with the holotype in F; this is clearly incorrect. Lingelsheim worked on the Buchtien collections, along with Baenitz and Pax, in Breslau, now Wroclaw, Poland.

Mikania cryptodonta B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 73: 22 (1924). Type: Peru: herbaceous or nearly so, clambering over stumps or in sunny woods, about 610 m. alt., Pozuzo, June 20-22, 1923, J. F. Macbride, no. 4683. Holotype: F; isotypes: GH, K.

Mikania caustolepis B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 77: 49 (1926). Type: Peru: Dept. Cuzco: climbing white-flowered shrub in forest near Rio Yanamayo, below Pillahuata, alt. 2000-2300 m., May 4-5, 1925, Pennell, no. 14,070. Holotype: GH; isotype: F.

Mikania lechleri Sch.Bip. ex B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 90: 35 (1930). Type: Peru: Dept. Puno: Prov. Carabaya: inter virgult. St. Gavan, Aug. 54, Lechler, no. 2480. Holotype: K; isotype: GH. [Note: Robinson (1930: 36) added the following note From the brief data given, it is clear that this plant was collected on the eastern slopes of the Cordilleras north of Lake Titicaca probably near the Riven San Gavan, therefore in the upper drainage of the great river Madre de Dios.]

*Mikania vitifolia DC. f. boliviensis (Lingelsh.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 54 (1934).

Mikania anzoatiguensis V. M. Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 10(No. 68): 301 (1946). Type: [Venezuela: ] Edo. Anzotegui: bosques de las cabeceras de los tributarios del r o Never, entre R o Len y Carmelita, al NE de Bergant n, 8001200 m., marzo 5 de 1945 (J. Steyermark 61376). Holotype: VEN; isotype: F.

Mexico, Central America, South America S to Bolivia (Ben, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija), Brazil.

*Mikania vitifolia DC. f. boliviensis (Lingelsh.) B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 54 (1934) = Mikania vitifolia DC.

Mikania vitrea B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 61: 22 (1920) = Mikania hookeriana DC.

*Mikania werdermannii B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 47 (1934). Type: Bolivia: Dept. El Beni: Rio Chapar -Marmor, alt. ca. 250 m., Aug. 1926, Dr. E Werdermann, no. 2235. Holotype: S; isotype: GH (fragment).

Bolivia (Ben ).

*Mikania williamsii B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 19 (1922). Type: Bolivia: Charopampa, Prov. Caupolican, Dept. La Paz, alt. 488 m., R.S. Williams, no. 696. Holotype: NY; isotypes: GH (fragment), K.

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz).

Mikania yapsensis B. L. Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 48 (1934) = Mikania cordifolia (L.f.) Willd.

Milleria chiloensis Juss., Gen. Pl. : 187 (1789), nom. nud. pro syn. = Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze

Milleria contrayerba Cav., Icon. 1: 2, pl. 4 (1791) = Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze