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Melanthera Rohr, Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 2(1): 213 (1792).

Amellus P. Browne, Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica : 317 (1756), nom. rej., non Amellus L. Type: Santolina amellus L. = Melanthera nivea (L.) J. K. Small

Melananthera Michx., Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 106 (1803), orth var. Note: Michauxs name, whilst being technically correct and provided with a full Latin description, is taken as an orthographic variant of Rohrs.

Lipotriche R.Br., Observ. Campos : 118 (1817). Type: Lipotriche brownei DC. = Melanthera scandens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty

Wollastonia DC. ex Decne, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 3: 414 (1834). Lectotype (selected by Fosberg, 1980: 32): Wollastonia scabriuscula DC. ex Decne, nom. illegit. = Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild

Psathurochaeta DC., Prodr. 5: 609 (1836). Type: Psathurochaeta dregei DC. = Melanthera scandens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty ssp. dregei (DC.) Wild

Aphanopappus Endl., Gen. Pl. Suppl. 2: 43 (1842), nom. illegit., citing Schizophyllum Nutt. in synonymy.

Wuerschmittia Sch.Bip. ex Walp., Repert. 6: 161 (1846). Type: Wuerschmittia abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex Walp. = Melanthera abyssinica (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) Vatke

Echinocephalum Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 294 (1848). Lectotype (selected by Wagner & H. Robinson, 2001: 550): Echinocephalum angustifolium Gardner = Melanthera latifolia (Gardner) Cabrera, non M. angustifolia A. Rich.

Type: No original species cited. Neotype (designated by Cassini, in J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 87: 27, 1818, vide Nicolson in Taxon 30: 491492, 1981): Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

References

Parks, J. C. (1975). A revision of North American and Caribbean Melanthera (Compositae). Rhodora 75(No. 802): 169210.

Robinson, H. (2006). Melanthera. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera MZ. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 510.

Wagner, W. L. & H. Robinson. (2001). Lipochaeta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtibe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539561.

Melanthera amethystina O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 127 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera aspera (Jacq.) Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 164 (1909) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera aspera (Jacq.) Rendle in Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jam. 7: 232 (1936), comb. illegit., superfl.= Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera brevifolia O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 123 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera buchii Urban, Symb. Antill. 3: 411 (1903) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera calcicola Britton, Bot Porto Rico 6(2): 309 (1925) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera canescens (Kuntze) O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 116 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera carpenteri Small, Fl. S. E. U. S.: 1251, 1340 (1903) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera confusa Britton, Bot. Porto Rico 6(2): 309 (1925) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera corymbosa Spreng., Neue Entd. 2: 135 (1821) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera crenata O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 123 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera hastata (Walter) L. C. Rich. ssp. cubensis (O. E. Schulz) Borhidi, Bot. Kzlem. 58(3): 177 (1971) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera hastata (Walter) L. C. Rich. var. b cubensis O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 125 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera hastata (Walter) L. C. Rich. ssp. lobata (Pursh) Borhidi, Bot. K zlem. 58(3): 177 (1971) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera [sub Melananthera] hastata (Walter) Michx. var. a lobata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 519 (1814) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera hastata (Walter) Michx. var. g lobata (Pursh) O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 125 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera [sub Melananthera] hastata (Walter) Michx. var. b pandurata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 519 (1814) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera latifolia (Gardner) Cabrera, Darwiniana 16: 411 (1970).

Echinocephalum latifolium Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 294 (1848). Types: Hab. In cane-fields near Crato, Province of Cear, Oct., 1838 ([Gardner] 1728); and in similar situations near Arrayas, Province of Goyaz, March, 1840 ([Gardner] 3848). Lectotype (selected by Wagner & Robinson, 2001: 557): Gardner 1728, BM; isolectotypes: K 2 (photo US), NY Y> 2, US (frag.). Syntype (Gardner 3848): K, NY 2.

Echinocephalum lanceolatum Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 295 (1848). Type: Hab. Near Aracaty, Province of Cear. Aug., 1838. [Gardner] 1729. Cited by Wagner & H. Robinson (2001: 557) as ''Holotype: BM-n.v.; isotypes: K-n.v. (photo US), US (frag.).

Echinocephalum angustifolium Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 295 (1848). Type: Hab. Near Sap, Province of Goyaz. Feb., 1840. [Gardner] 3848 (bis). Cited by Wagner & H. Robinson (2001: 557) as ''Holotype: BM-n.v.; isotypes: K-n.v. (photo US), US (frag.).

Argentina, Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil, Paraguay.

Melananther linnaei Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 156 (1818) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera lobata Small, Fl. S. E. U. S.: 1251, 1340 (1903) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera molliuscula O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 127 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera montana O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 121 (1911) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera nivea (L.) Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. : 1251 (1903).

Bidens nivea L., Sp. Pl. : 833 (1753). Type: Habitat in Carolina. Lectotype (selected by Parks, 1973: 184): [icon] Bidens scabra flore niveo, folio trilobato in Dillenius, Hort. Eltham. 1: 55, t. 47, f. 55 (1732). See also discussion in Jarvis (2007: 350).

Athanasia hastata Walter, Fl. Carol. : 201 (1788). Type: not cited.

Calea aspera Jacq., Collect. 2: 290 (1788). Type: America meridionalis patria est. Apud nos in caldariis laete viget, florens totam aestatem, .... Holotype: BM (according to Parks, 1975: 192, repeated by Wagner & Robinson, 2001: 557).

Melananthera hastata (Walter) Michx., Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 107 (1803). Note: although citing Bidens nivea L. in synonymy, under ICBN Art. 33.2 it is considered, albeit indirectly, that the name appearing in Flora Boreali-Americana is actually a combination based on Walters name.

Melananthera deltoidea Michx., Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 107 (1803), nom. illegit., citing Calea aspera Jacq. in synon.

Melanthera [sub Melananthera] hastata (Walter) Michx. var. a lobata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 519 (1814). Type: Icon. Dill. elth. t. 47. f. 55.

Melanthera [sub Melananthera] hastata (Walter) Michx. var. b pandurata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 519 (1814). Type: Icon. Dill. elth. t. 46. f. 54.

Melananther linnaei Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 156 (1818). Types: [Colombia:] Crescit in calidis Regni Novo-Granatensis, ad ripam fluminis Juanambu, prope El Tablon, alt. 760 hex.; item in convalli fluvii Magdalen prope Guarumo et in litore lacus Tacarigu , alt. 100 400 hex. (Provincia Caracasana.) 0 Floret Junio Augusto. Syntypes: P-Bonpl.

Melanthera corymbosa Spreng., Neue Entd. 2: 135 (1821). Types: Ex Antiquae et Guadalupae insulis.

Melanthera urticifolia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 484 (1823), nom. illegit. superfl.

Melanthera panduriformis Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 485 (1823). Type: Cette plante, que nous navons point vu, et que nous avons dcrivons dapr s Dillen; a t observe par ce botaniste sur des individus vivans, provenant de graines envoy es de la Caroline, et cultive en Angleterre, o ils fleurissoient en octobre. Note: this is based on Dillenius cultivated material grown at Eltham and is doubtless one of the elements upon which Linneus based his Bidens nivea.

Melanthera trilobata Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 485 (1823). Type: Dillen, dont nous empruntons la description, faite sur des individus vivans, cultive en Angleterre et provenant de graines envoy es de la Caroline, remarque que cette espce fleurit un mois plus tard que le pr cedente, et quelle paroit tre plus sensible au froid. Note: this is based on Dillenius'' cultivated material grown at Eltham and is doubtless one of the elements upon which Linneus based his Bidens nivea.

Melanthera oxylepis DC., Prodr. 5: 545 (1836). Type: K ad Guyaquil legit cl. Haenke. ... (v. s. in h. Haenk.). Holotype: PR; isotype: G-DC.

Elaphantopus cuneifolius Fourn., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 30: 186 (1883). Type: Vulgaris. Cordoba, Aug. [(Vera Cruz) 1882, Kerber, 44] Holotype: ?B or CORD; isotype: GOET, K. Note: Material was distributed as part of the first half-century of plants, Plantae mexicanae a cl. Edm. Kerbero collectae, and was widely distributed with large sets of Kerbers plants in B, BM, CORD, K, etc., etc. The collection number is only the distribution number in the half-century. It is possible that the top set was in B (where he worked on his material), although now destroyed, or in CORD.

Wullfia deltoidea (Michx.) Gmez [de la Maza], Dicc. Bot. Nom. Vulg. Cub. & Puerto-Riqui os: 26 (1889).

Wullfia hastata (Walter) Gmez [de la Maza], Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 19: 274 (1890).

Amellus asper [sic!] (Jacq.) Kuntze [var.] a normalis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305 (1891).

Amellus asper [sic!] (Jacq.) Kuntze [var.] b glabriusculus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 306 (1891). Type: Colon. Wetter & Zanoni (1985: 326) cited '''Panama. Coln, 4 Apr 1874, Kuntze 1834. Holotype: NY; isotype: K. Parks (1975: 194) lectotypified the name, somewhat unnecessarily, presumably based on the same material but not citing the number of the collection.

Amellus asper [sic!](Jacq.) Kuntze [var.] g canescens Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305 (1891). Types: Portorico: Cayey; St. Thomas.''' Note: Wetter & Zanoni (1985: 326) cited only Virgin Islands. St. Thomas, 28 Feb 1874, Kuntze 117. as present in NY.

Amellus asper [sic!](Jacq.) Kuntze [var.] g canescens Kuntze f. bicolor Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305 (1891). Type: Portorico: Guayama. Holotype: NY. Note: Wetter & Zanoni (1985: 326) cited Puerto Rico. Guayama, 16 Mar 1874, Kuntze 575.

Amellus nivea (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 305 (1891).

Melanthera buchii Urban, Symb. Antill. 3: 411 (1903). Type: Hab. in Haiti in regione calcarea sicca ad Bilboro, 700 m. alt., m. Majo flor.: Buch n. 364.

Melanthera carpenteri Small, Fl. S. E. U. S.: 1251, 1340 (1903). Type: In pine thickets, Louisiana. Summer. p. 1340 Felicinia, La., Carpenter, July, in Herb. C. U. Holotype: NY; isotype: NO.

Melanthera lobata Small, Fl. S. E. U. S.: 1251, 1340 (1903). Type: About lakes and ponds, penisular Florida. Summer. p. 1340 Nash, Pl. Cent. Penins. Fla., no. 1141, in Herb. C. U. Holotype: NY; isotypes: GH, K, MICH, MO, UC, US.

Melanthera aspera (Jacq.) Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 164 (1909).

Melanthera canescens (Kuntze) O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 116 (1911).

Melanthera montana O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 121 (1911). Type: Hab. in Portorico prope Bayamon in sylvis montanis m. Mart. fr. : Sintenis n. 1145, ex parte.

Melanthera brevifolia O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 123 (1911). Types: Hab. in Indian Key: comm. Cabanis, Elliots Key in arenosis maritimis m. Apr. fl.: Curtiss n. 1415, Marquesas Keys m. Mart. fl. et fr.: O. E. Lansing n. 2179, Key West: Blodgett ex Torrey and Gray; Cuba: Drummond ex Griseb., Wright n. 3609 ex Sauv., Ramon de la Sagra, prope Mantanzas: F. Rugel n. 24, ad Ganado, Cayo Sabinal, Camaguey m. Mart. fl. et fr.: J. A. Shafer n. 856. Mexico prope Matanzos: Wawra n. 74. Lectotype (selected by Parks, 1975: 194): Florida: Monroe Co., Elliots Key in arenosis maritimis, Curtiss 1415, US; isolectotypes: F, MISSA, NY, PA.

Melanthera crenata O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 123 (1911). Types: Hab. in ins. Bahamens.: Swainson ex Griseb., New Providence prope Nassau: ex Hitchc., ibidem m. Jan. fl. et fr.: J. I. et A. R. Northrop n. 58, Eleuthera et Fortune Isl.: ex Hitchc., Hog Isl. in fruticetis m. Febr. fl. et fl.: Eggers n. 4047. Lectotype (selected by Parks, 1975: 194): Bahamas, New Providence, J. & A. Northrop 58, NY; isolectotype: K. Isosyntype (Rugel 24): K.

Melanthera hastata (Walter) L. C. Rich. var. b cubensis O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 125 (1911). Types: Hab. in Cuba: Wright n. 3608, prope Habana: Ramon de la Sagra n. 69, Torralbas n. 205, ibidem ad Seiba: Morales et Bosque n. 216, prov. Habana prope Vento in ripis humidis m. Jan. fl. et fr.: A. H. Curtiss n. 597, prope Santiago de las Vegas n. Apr. fl. et fr.: Baker Herb. Cub. n. 4983, prov. Sta. Clara in distr. Cienfuegos prope Sta. Rosalia ad Rio Damuji in fertilibus arenosis m. Aug. fl. et fr.: R. Combs n. 385; Portorico prope Bayamon m. Jan. fl. et fr.: Millspaugh Pl. Utow. n. 314. Lectotype (selected by Parks, 1975: 192): Cuba: prope Habana, Wright 3608, NY; isolectotype: US.

Melanthera hastata (Walter) Michx. var. g lobata (Pursh) O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 125 (1911).

Melanthera amethystina O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 127 (1911). Types: Hab. in Sto. Domingo m. Aug. fl.: Mayerhoff, in graminosis montis Cerro Gordo ad Tamboril 500 m. alt. m. Maj. fl.: Eggers n. 1951, prope Constanza in pinetis 1190 m. alt. m. Apr. fl. et fr.: H. von Trckheim n. 3199b. Lectotype (selected by Parks, 1975: 192): Santo Domingo, Turckheim 3199b, NY.

Melanthera molliuscula O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 127 (1911). Types: Hab. in Haiti: hb. Kunth ex mus. Par. 1820; Sto. Domingo: Schomburgk n. 24 I, prope Constanza in pinetis 1190 m. alt. m. Jun. fl. et fr.: H. von T rckheim n. 3199. Lectotype (selected by Parks, 1975: 192): Santo Domingo, Turckheim 3199, NY; isolectotype: K. Syntype (Schomburgk 24): K.

Melanthera oxycarpha S. F. Blake, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 22: 628 (1924). Type: Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 841743, collected in fields at Zacuapan, Veracruz, Mexico, May, 1907, by C. A. Purpus (no. 2437). Holotype: US; isotypes: F, MO, UC.

Melanthera calcicola Britton, Bot. Porto Rico 6(2): 309 (1925). Type: Thicket, limestone hill east of Vega Alta, Porto Rico (Britton and Brown, 6784). Holotype: NY.

Melanthera confusa Britton, Bot. Porto Rico 6(2): 309 (1925). Type: Hillsides and thickets at lower elevations, Porto Rico, Culebra; Tortola: Cuba. Type from Zion Hill, Tortola (Fishlock, 440). Holotype: NY.

Melanthera aspera (Jacq.) Rendle in Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jam. 7: 232 (1936), comb. illegit., superfl.

Melanthera hastata (Walter) L. C. Rich. ssp. lobata (Pursh) Borhidi, Bot. Kzlem. 58(3): 177 (1971).

Melanthera hastata (Walter) L. C. Rich. ssp. cubensis (O. E. Schulz) Borhidi, Bot. K zlem. 58(3): 177 (1971).

Bahamas, Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Greater and Lesser Antilles, Gutemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, USA (Florida), Venezuela.

Note: The record for Bolivia is based on Guttirez 535 from the Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, determined by H. Robinson. Wagner & Robinson (2001) recorded the species only from northern South America, the Antilles and the USA, although their species concept was extremely broad encompassing M. aspera (Jacq.) Small which was recognized as a separate species (with two varieties) by Parks (1975). The synonymy above combines the Parks two subspecies and his synonymy of M. nivea. PurshYT's references to Melanthera hastata suggest that L. C. Richard was the combining author. However, since Michaux was the declared author of the whole work then it is Michaux who should be credited with the combinations and new taxa within it. There is an interesting discussion in TL II after the entry for Flora Boreali-Americana.

Melanthera oxycarpha S. F. Blake, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 22: 628 (1924) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera oxylepis DC., Prodr. 5: 545 (1836) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera panduriformis Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 485 (1823) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera trilobata Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 485 (1823) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Melanthera urticifolia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 484 (1823), nom. illegit. superfl. = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Meratia sprengelii Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 30: 66 (1824), nom. illegit. superfl., based on D. berteri Spreng. = Delilia biflora (L.) Kuntze

Merope aretioides (Sch.Bip.) Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 164 (1856) = Mniodes aretioides (Sch.Bip.) Cuatrec.

Merope argentea Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 163 (1856) = Belloa schultzii (Wedd.) Cabrera

Merope caespititia Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 164 (1856) = Belloa schultzii (Wedd.) Cabrera

Merope erythractis Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 162 (1856) = Gamochaeta erythractis (Wedd.) Cabrera

Merope kunthiana (DC.) Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 161 (1856) = Belloa kunthiana (DC.) Anderb. & S. E. Freire

Merope piptolepis Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 162 (1856) = Belloa piptolepis (Wedd.) Cabera

Merope schultzii Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 163 (1856) = Belloa schultzii (Wedd.) Cabrera

Merope virescens Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 163 (1856) = Belloa schultzii (Wedd.) Cabrera

Meyera fluctuans (Lour.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 602 (1826) = Enydra fluctuans Lour.

Meyera guineensis Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 602 (1826), nom. illegit. = Enydra fluctuans Lour.

Meyera maritima Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 211 (1818) = Enydra sessilifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Cabrera

Meyeria capitata (G. Mey.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 601 (1826) = Tilesia baccata (L.f.) Pruski

Micrelium tolak Forssk., Fl. Aegypt. Arab. : 152 (1775) = Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Microdonta nana Nutt., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., ser. 2, 7: 370 (1841) = Heterosperma nanum (Nutt.) Sherff