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Hypochaeris L., Sp. Pl. : 810 (1753).

Achyrophorus Adans., Fam.. Pl. 2: 112 (1763). Type: not stated.

Seriola L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 1139 (1763). Type: Seriola [CHECK aethnensis L. = Hypochaeris achyrophorus L.]

Trommsdorfia Bernh., Syst. Verz. Erf. : 102 (1800). Type: Trommsdorfia maculata (L.) Bernh. = Hypochaeris maculata L.

Robertia DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Fran., ed. 3, 6: 453 (1815), non Spreng. (1826). Type: Robertia taraxacoides (Loisel.) DC. = Hypochaeris robertia Fiori]

Porcellites Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 25: 64 (1822). Type: not originally stated, but later in Dict. Sci. Nat. 43: 42 (1826) Cassini actually stated the [lecto]type was Porcellites radicata (L.) Cass., based on Hypochaeris radicata L.

Oreophila D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16(2): 178 (1830). Type: Oreophila sessiliflora (Kunth) D. Don = Hypochaeris sessiliflora Kunth

Amblachaenium Turcz. ex DC., Prodr. 7: 93 (1838), nom. nud. pro syn. based on Oreophila D. Don

Achyrophorus Adans. sect. II. Oreophila (D. Don) DC., Prodr. 7: 93 (1838).

Metabasis DC., Prodr. 7: 97 (1838). Type: Metabasis hymettia DC. = Hypochaeris cretensis (L.) Bory & Chaub.

Fabera Sch.Bip., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 21: 129 (1845). Type: Fabera cretensis (L.) Sch.Bip. = Hypochaeris cretensis (L.) Bory & Chaub.

Distoecha Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile 1: 36 (1891). Type: Distoecha taraxacoides Phil. = Hypochaeris eremophila Cabrera

Type: Hypochaeris radicata L.

References

Bortiri, E. (1997). Novedades en Hypochoeris (Compositae, Cichorieae) de la Argentina. Hickenia 2(No. 46): 223232.

Bortiri, E. (Dec. 1999). Tribu XIII. Lactuceae: Hypochoeris. In: L. Ariza Espinar (coord.), Flora fanerog mica Argentina, Fasc. 63; 280. Asteraceae, parte 14. ProFlora CONICET, Crdoba, Argentina. pp. [1] 325.

Cabrera, A. L. (1963). Estudios sobre el genero Hypochoeris. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 10(2---3): 166195.

Cabrera, A. L. (1976). Materiales para una revision del genero Hypochoeris. I. Hypochoeris chillensis (H. B. K.) Hieron. Darwiniana 20: 312322.

Philippi, R. A. (1891). Catalogus praevius plantarum in itinere ad Tarapaca a Friderico Philippi lectarum. Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, sec. 2, Bot. 1: iviii, 196 + tabs I & II.

Schultz Bipontinus, C. H. (1859). Revisio critica generis Achyrophori. Jahresber. Pollichia 16-17: 4573. [Note: This formed part of Schultz bipontinus Commentatines botanicae and, together with a paper on Veronica, was published as a repaginated and reprinted separate which, in the Kew volume of the Jahresbericht, is paginated pp. 944, and bound as part of the journal; its date is identical to that of the journal volume.]

Tremetsberger, K., Stuessy, T. F., Kadlec, G., Urtubey, E., Baeza, C. M., Beck, S. G., Valdebenito, H. A., Fatima Ruas, C. de, & N. I. Matzenbacher. (2006). AFLP phylogeny of South American species of Hypochaeris (Asteraceae, Lactuceae). Syst. Bot. 31(3): 610626.

Note: Bortiris species concepts (1997) are much broader than most and were clearly not followed by Tremetsberger et al. (2006).

*Hypochaeris acaulis (Remy) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19(12): 371 (1892).

Achyrophorus acaulis Remy in Gay, Fl. Chil. 3: 448 (late 1848 or early 1849). Type: Se cria en los prados pantanosos de las altas cordilleras de Talcaregue, provincia de Colchagua. Florece en febrero. Type material presumably in P.

Argentina, ?Bolivia (?), Chile. Note: Although cited by Foster (1958) Bortiri (1999: 78) indicated that this species was only native in Argentina and Chile. It remains to be seen whether this species is present in Boliva.

Hypochaeris argentina Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 15(4): 337 (1974) = Hypochaeris elata (Wedd.) Griseb.

Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb. var. chacoensis Hassl., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 371 (1913) = Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.

*Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb. [var.] a sulfurea Kuntze, Revis. Gen. 3(2): 159 (1898) = Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.

Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb. var. tweediei (Hook. & Arn.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 334 (1884) = Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.

Hypochaeris chilensis (Sch.Bip.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 371 (1892) = Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.

Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 84 (1900*). [*Note: See Reference section concerning problem with date of publication]

Apargia chillensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 3 (1818). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit in Regno Quitensi prope pagum Chillo, alt. 1430 hex. K Floret Martio. [Humbold & Bonpland no. 3005]. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Porcellites brasiliensis Less., Linnaea 6: 103 (1831), p.p. Types: Beyrich ad Rio Paquaquer pr. Emanuel Munis Jan. 1823; Chamisso ad frelum St. Catharinae Dcbr. 1815; Sellow in Brasilia meridionali ad Rio Pardo Octbr. et Novbr. 1823. Syntypes: probably B.

Seriola brasiliensis Less. subvar. c. hirsutula Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1(No. 1): 31 (1835). Type: Buenos Ayres, Tweedie., although this appears after Subvar. c. hirsutula, Less. l.c.

Seriola tweediei Hook. & Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1(No. 1): 31 (1835). Type: Buenos Ayres, where it is frequently employed as Endive. Tweedie.

Leontodon chilense (Kunth) DC., Prodr. 7: 105 (1838), based on Apargia chillensis Kunth

Achyrophorus chilensis [sic!] (Kunth) Sch.Bip., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 21: 104 (1845).

Achyrophorus brasiliensis (Less.) Sch.Bip., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 21: 106 (1845).

Achyrophorus chillensis (Kunth) Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 1617: 57 (1859). [p. 25 in separate]

Achyrophorus sagittatus Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 36: 178 (1870). Type: [Chile:] Mendoza. Pizarro (1960: 131) cited SGO 44701.

Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb., Abhand. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24: 217 (1879).

Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb. var. tweediei (Hook. & Arn.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 334 (1884).

Hypochaeris chilensis (Sch.Bip.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 371 (1892).

*Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb. a sulphurea Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(): 159 (1898). Types: Argentina: Cordoba. Bolivia: Tunarigebirge. Brasilia: Itatiaya. Paraguay. Uruguay. [Bolivia. Tunarigebirge, 1400 m, Apr-May 1892, Kuntze s.n. Brazil. Itatiaya, 1200 m, Dec 1892, Kuntze s.n. Paraguay. Sdparaguay, Sep 1892, Kuntze s.n. Uruguay. Rio Santa Lucia, nov 1892, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 333]

Hypochaeris brasiliensis (Less.) Griseb. var. chacoensis Hassl., Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 371 (1913). Type: [Paraguay:] Gran Chaco: In campis Loma Clavel, fruct. mens. Nov.; Hassler no. 2603.

Hypochaeris tweediei (Hook. & Arn.) Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot. 2(No. 16): 203 (1937).

Hypochaeris (Achyrophorus) parodii Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 10(2.-3): 183 (1963). Type: ARGENTINA. Catamarca: Sierra de Ambato, Loma Larga, 1900 m s.m., leg. L. R. Parodi, 14267, II-1941. Holotype: LP.

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay. Also naturalized in USA and South Africa.

Notes: Borteri (1999: 9) placed H. parodii into a slightly broader concept of this species; Borteri (1999: 10) also said nothing about the involucral distinctions mapped by Cabrera (Cabrera, 1976: 318). Cabreras original distinction (Cabrera 1963: 185) was on the basis of the relative length of the ligules, well exceeding the involucre, however, later he (Cabrera 1976: 321) included paratype material of his earlier species under H. chillensis. Seriola brasiliensis Less., Syn. Gen. Comp. : 131 (1832) is often cited but no such combination was made by Lessing in this work, merely that his species of Porcellites should be placed in Seriola.

Achicoria, Achicoria del campo, Cerraja (Freire et al., 2006).

*Hypochaeris chilensis (Sch.Bip.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 371 (1892) = Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.

Hypochaeris echegarayi Hieron., Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Crdoba 4(1): 51 (1881). Type: Se halla en los Barriales del Leoncito, en Diciembre y Enero, con flores y frutos. [Echegaray]. Holotype: CORD.

Achyrophorus setosus Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 220 (1857). Types: '''Hab. Prou: lieux mar cageux des hautes Cordillres du d partement de Lima, au Cerro de Pasco!, etc. (Mac Lean). Bolivie: environs de Potosi! (dOrbigny) et parties lev es de la province de Cinti! (Wedd.). Syntypes: P.

*Hypochaeris setosa (Wedd.) Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 402 (1907).

Hypochaeris taraxacoides (Meyen & Walp.) Britton var. lanuginosa Beauverd ex Herzog, Pflanzenw. Bolivischen Anden : 228 (1923), nom. nud., based on Herzog 2522 c.

*Hypochaeris ornata J. Koster, Blumea 5(3): 660 (1945). Type: Hab.: am Cerro de Oruro auf steinigem trockenem Boden, 3800 m alt., Nov. 1911, [Herzog] n. 2522 c. Holotype: L.

Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb. var. leucantha Cabrera, Revista Invest. Agric. 11(4): 410 (1957). Type: Argentina: Jujuy, Dep. Yavi, Quebrada de Cajas, 4000 m s. m., leg. A. L. Cabrera 7837, i-II-1943. Holotype: LP.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Potos), Peru.

*Hypochaeris elata (Wedd.) Griseb., Abh. K nigl. Ges. Wiss. Gttingen 24(1): 218 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent.: 218 (1879).

Achyrophorus elatus Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 223 (1857). Type: Hab. Bolivie: province de Carangas! (dOrbigny)..' Holotype: P.

Hypochaeris argentina Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 15(4): 337 (1974). Type: Argentina: Prov. Jujuy, Depto. Capital, Cerro de Zapla, leg. H. A. Fabris 8255. Holotype: LP.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Hypochaeris eriolaena (Sch.Bip.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 116: 589 (1905).

Achyrophorus eriolaenus Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 3(15 & 16): 236 (1855), nom. nud.

Achyrophorus eriolaenus Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(4): 54 (1856). Type: [Peru.] [Lechler] Nr. 1754 [ex parte cf. Schultz Bipontinus, 1855].

Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb. var. eriolaenoides Cabrera, Revista Invest. Agric. 11(4): 410 (1957). Type: Argentina: Jujuy, Sierra de Zenta, 4500 m s. m., leg. Budin, II-1931. Holotype: LP.

Argentina, Bolivia (?), Peru.

Hypochaeris eriolaena (Sch.Bip.) Reiche var. hispida Beauverd ex Herzog, Pflanzenw. Bolivischen Anden : 210 (1923), nom. nud. = Hypochaeris ?

Hypochaeris hohenackeri Beauverd ex Herzog, Pflanzenw. Bolivischen Anden : 211 (1923), nom. nud. pro syn. = Hypochaeris parvifolia J. Koster

*Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 199 (1974).

Oreophila meyeniana Walp., Nov. Actorum Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 292 (1843). Type: Peruvia: in planitie circa Tacoram, altitudine 1417,000 pedum. (v.s.). Holotype: B.

Achyrophorus meyenianus (Walp.) Walp., Rep. 6: 336 (1846-47).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Note: See comments on Bortiri (1997: 227-228) over concept and synonymy of H. sessiliflora Kunth.

var. brachylepis Cabrera, Fl. Prov. Jujuy 10: 677 (1978). Type: [Argentina:] Jujuy: Dep. Yavi, alrededores de La Quiaca, T. Meyer et al. 21270. Holotype: LP (908963).

Argentina, Bolivia (?).

var. meyeniana

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

*Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb. var. ciliata (Wedd.) Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 232 (1913) = Hypochaeris sessiliflora Kunth

Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb. var. eriolaenoides Cabrera, Revista Invest. Agric. 11(4): 410 (1957) Hypochaeris eriolaena (Sch.Bip.) Reiche

Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb. var. leucantha Cabrera, Revista Invest. Agric. 11(4): 410 (1957) = Hypochaeris echegarayi Hieron.

*Hypochaeris ornata J. Koster, Blumea 5(3): 660 (1945) = Hypochaeris echegarayi Hieron.

Hypochaeris (Achyrophorus) parodii Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 10(23): 183 (1963) = Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.

*Hypochaeris parvifolia J. Koster, Blumea 5(3): 661 (1945). Type: [Bolivia: ] Hab.: Rosettenpolster auf Alpenwiesen im Tcacota-Thal, 4300 m alt., Okt. 1911, [Herzog] n. 2425 c. Holotype: L.

Hypochaeris hohenackeri Beauverd ex Herzog, Pflanzenw. Bolivischen Anden : 211 (1923), nom. nud. pro syn.

Bolivia (?).

*Hypochaeris sessiliflora Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 (ed. folio): 1 (1818). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit in alta convalli Quitensi, juxta montem ignivomum Pichincha, alt. 1500 hex. K Floret Aprili.

Hypochaeris sonchoides Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 2 (1818). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit cum praecedente. K [Hypochaeris sessiliflora Kunth Crescit in alta convalli Quitensi, juxta montem ignivomum Pichincha, alt. 1500 hex. K Floret Aprili.] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Oreophila sessiliflora (Kunth) D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16(2): 178 (1830).

Achyrophorus sessiliflorus (Kunth) DC., Prodr. 7: 95 (1838).

Achyrophorus quitensis Sch.Bip., Nova Actorum Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 21: 100 (1845), nom. nud.

Achyrophorus quitensis Sch.Bip. ex Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 219 (1957), nom. illegit. superfl.

Achyrophorus meyenianus Walp. var. b ciliata Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 220 (1857). Type: Hab. Prou: p turages des hautes Cordillres des d partements de Puno!, dArequipa! et de Tacna! (Meyen, Wedd.). Bolivie: dans les rgions leves des d partements de Potosi!, de Chuquisaca! et de Tarija! (dOrbigny, Wedd.). Note: This material was cited regardless of whether it was a representative of the species or the new variety. Lectotype (selected by Bortiri, 1997: 227): BOLIVIA. Prov. Tarija: en monte Calama, Weddell 4017, I-1846, P.

Achyrophorus quitensis Sch.Bip. var. b sonchoides (Kunth) Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 219 (1857).

Achyrophorus humboltdii Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 16/17: 52 (1859). Types: Hab. Columbia, prov. Bogota, Monserrate, 5000'. Martio 1843: Linden! n. 1292; Bogota (nomen incol. Cichoria) Karsten!. Lectotype (selected by Bortiri, 1997: 227): COLOMBIA. Dpto. Cundinamarca: Nueva Granada, Bogot, Linden 1292, P.

Achyrophorus albiflorus Sch.Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 16/17: 52 (1859). Types: YT'Hab. in Columbiae Paramo de Mucuchiec, ubi Oct. Dec. leg. cl. Moritz! n. 1402 (Chicoria Inc.); Venezuela, prov. Merida Sa. Nevada alt. 10,500, Sept. 1846. Funk et Schlimm n. 1166; Bogota: Karsten! Lectotype (selected by Bortiri, 1997: 227): VENEZUELA. Prov. Mrida: Sa Nevada, 1846, Funck y Schlim 1166, P.

*Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Griseb. var. ciliata (Wedd.) Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 232 (1913).

Argentina, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Potos , Tarija), Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.

Bortiri (1997: 227) clearly considered that H. sessiliflora should be a broader concept than Cabreras, rather dramatically widening the distribution.

*Hypochaeris setosa (Wedd.) Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 402 (1907) = Hypochaeris echegarayi Hieron.

Hypochaeris sonchoides Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 2 (1818) = Hypochaeris sessiliflora Kunth

*Hypochaeris stenocehpala Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 160 (1898), as nom. nov. pro Achyrophorus taraxacifolius (Meyen & Walp.) Walp.

Oreophila taraxacifolia Meyen & Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 291 (1843). Type: Peruvia: in planitie circa Tacoram, altitudine 1417,000 pedum. (v.s.). Holotype: B.

Achyrophorus taraxacifolius (as taraxacoides [sic!]) (Meyen & Walp.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 6: 336 (1846/47), orth. error in comb. pro Oreophila taraxacifolia Meyen & Walp., non (Salzm.) Sch.Bip. (1845)(= Hypochaeris cretensis (L.) Bory & Chaub., a plant from Corsica)

Achyrophorus stenocephalus A. Gray ex Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 221 (1857), nom. nud. [based on herbarium *name of A. Gray applied to Weddells var. b of Achyropappus taraxacoides]

Hypochaeris taraxacifolia (as taraxacoides [sic!]) (Meyen & Walp.) Ball, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 48 (1885), comb. illegit. et superfl., non. (Salzm.) Loisel. (1827) [= Hypochaeris cretensis (L.) Bory & Chaub.]

Hypochaeris taraxicoides [sic!] (Meyen & Walp.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 371 (1892) comb. illegit. & superfl., non Pourr. ex Steud. (1821).

Hypochaeris taraxacoides [sic!] (Meyen & Walp.) B. D. Jacks., Index Kewensis : 2: 1196 (1893), comb. illegit. & superfl., non Pourr. ex Steud. (1821).

*Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze var. a integrifolia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 160 (1898). Type: Bolivia: Oruro. Note: Location of type material unknown; Wetter & Zanoni (1985: 340) noted that no material was found in NY.

Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze var. b taracacifolia (as taraxacodes [sic!]) (Meyen & Walp.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 169 (1898), nom. inval., based on Oreophila taraxacifolia Meyen & Walp. non D. Don (1832).

[Hypochaeris taraxacoides (Walp.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2(1): 519 (1873) is often cited but this combination was certainly not made in Genera Plantarum and might only be attributed to Jackson, in Index Kewensis, q.v., if necessary to cite another superfluous cobination]

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Potos), Peru.

*Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze var. a integrifolia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 160 (1898) = Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze

Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze var. b taracacifolia (as taraxacodes [sic!]) (Meyen & Walp.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 169 (1898), nom. inval., (based on Oreophila taraxacifolia Meyen & Walp.) non D. Don (1832) = Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze

Hypochaeris taraxacoides (Meyen & Walp.) Ball, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 48 (1885), comb. illegit et superfl. = Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze

Hypochaeris taraxicoides [sic!] (Meyen & Walp.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 371 (1892) comb. illegit. et superfl., non Pourr. ex Steud. (1821) = Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze

Hypochaeris taraxacoides [sic!] (Meyen & Walp.) B. D. Jacks., Index Kewensis : 2: 1196 (1893), comb. illegit. et superfl., non Pourr. ex Steud. (1821) = Hypochaeris stenocephala Kuntze

Hypochaeris taraxacoides'' var. lanuginosa Beauverd ex Herzog, Pflanzenw. Bolivischen Anden : 228 (1923), nom. nud. = Hypochaeris echegarayi Hieron.