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Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav., Prodr. : 110, t. 24 (1794).

Galinsogea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2228 (1803), orth. var.

Gallinsoga St.Hil., Expos. 1: 417 (1805), orth. var.

Galinsoja Roth, Catal. Bot. 3: 78 (1806), orth. var.

Galinsogaea Himpel, Fl. Elsass-Lothr. : 187 (1891), orth. var.

Wiborgia Roth, Catal. Bot. 2: 112 (1800), nom. rej., non Viborgia Moench (1794), nec Wiborgia Thunb. (1800), nom. cons.

Vigolina Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 8: 613 (1808), nom. superfl., based on Wiborgia Roth. Type: Wiborgia acmella Roth = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Vargasia DC., Prodr. 5: 676 (1836), non Bertero ex Spreng. (1825). Type: Vargasia caracasana DC. = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Adventina Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 67 (1836). Type: not stated. Lectotype (selected by Canne, 1977: 335): Adventina parviflora Raf. = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Baziasa Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 192 (1840), p.p.

Stematella Wedd. ex Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 82 (1865), nom. nud.

Stemmatella Wedd. ex Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 193, 359, 360 (1873). Type: Stemmatella congesta Wedd. ex O. Hoffm. = Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip.

Stenocarpha S. F. Blake, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1915: 348 (1915). Type: Stenocarpha filiformis (Hemsl.) S. F. Blake = Galinsoga filiformis Hemsl.

Type: Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

References

Canne, J. M. (1977). A revision of the genus Galinsoga (Compositae: Heliantheae). Rhodora 79: 319389.

Canne, J. M. (1978). Circumscription and generic relationships of Galinsoga (Compositae: Heliantheae). Madroo 25: 8193.

Robinson, H. (2006). Galinsoga. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera AL. Botanical Institute, G teborg University, Gteborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 171178.

St. John, H. & D. White. (1920). The genus Galinsoga in North America. Rhodora 22(258): 97101.

Key to species (modified from Canne, 1977)

1. Capitula 4í¸™í¶–15 mm diam.; ray limbs 27 mm wide, 3-lobed, lobes conspicuous anad equal 2

Capitula 1.55 mm diam.; ray limbs absent or 0.22 mm wide, 13-lobed, lobes short and unequal 3

2. (1) Plants usually 2060 cm tall; leaf margins serrate; outermost paleae 23 mm long G. quadriradiata

Plants usually 315 cm tall; leaf margins entire or sometimes serrulate; outermost paleae 34 mm long G. boliviensis

3. (1) Capitula usually sessile; phyllaries reddish-purple; ray corollas white to reddish-purple; phyllaries and paleae deciduous G. mandonii

Capitula pedicellate; phyllaries green; ray corollas whitish or rarely pink; phyllaries and paleae persistent G. parviflora

Galinsoga aristulata E. P. Bicknell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 270 (1916), based on Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. hispida DC. = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga bicolorata St. John & D. White, Rhodora 22: 99 (1920) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga boliviensis J. M. Canne Rhodora, 79(819): 365 (1977). Type: Bolivia: Chuquisaca, Prov. Oropeza, Villa Maria, ca 10 km NE of Sucre, ca 2850 m, 12 Apr 1963, D. Ugent & M. Cardenas 4944. Holotype: WIS.

Bolivia (Chuquisaca).

Galinsoga brachystephana Otto, Index Sem. Hort. Berol. (1840), nom. nud. = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga brachystephana Otto ex Heer & Regel, Index Sem. Hort. Turic. 1846 [1847] = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga calva Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 80 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 529 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 80 & 81) = Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less.

Galinsoga calva Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 167 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn. = Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less.

*Galinsoga calva Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 61 (1893) = Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip.

Galinsoga caracasana (DC.) Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 80 (1865) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S. F. Blake, Rhodora 24: 35 (1922) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga eligulata Cuatrec., Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 9: 241 (1954) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga hirsuta Baker, Curators Rep. Thirsk Nat. Hist. Soc. 1861: 13 (1862), nom. nud. = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Galinsoga hispida (DC.) Hieron., Notizbl. Knigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 19: 15 (1907), hom. illegit. = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga hispida Benth. var. albiflora Fenzl, Del. Sem. Hort. Vindob. Advers. Bot. Stirp. Sem. 1849/1850: 2 (1851), nom. nud. = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga hispida Benth. var. purpurascens Fenzl, Del. Sem. Hort. Vindob. Advers. Bot. Stirp. Sem. 1849/1850: 2 (1851), based on Galinsoga brachystephana Otto ex Heer & Regel = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga humboldtii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 602 (1901) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga laciniata Retx. in D. G. F. Hoffm., Phytogr. Bl tt. 1: 46 (1803) = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip., Bull. Bot. Soc. France 12: 80 (1865), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 76) = Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip.

Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 167 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn. = Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less.

Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip., Linnaea 34(5): 529 (Feb. 1866). Type: [Hab. Prova Larecaja. Viciniis Sorata, ad culmen collis Lorecasa, in incultis. Alt. Reg. tempa 3200 m. Octbre 1859 Mandon] 76. Holotype: P; isotypes: GH, NY, S, US. Note: this is a very dubious validation by a short diagnosis (ach. calva). that appears after Mandons 76 in the list of Mandon collections. Holotype: P; isotype: K, S.

Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip., Bull. Bot. Soc. France 12: 80 (1865), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 62 and 76).

*Galinsoga unxioides Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 198 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 198 (1879). Type: [Argentina] S.: in radice montis Nevado del Castillo. Holotype (as Lectotype according to GOET type database): Lorentz & Hieronymus 167, GOET; isotypes: B, US.

Galinsoga calva Sch.Bip., Bull. Bot. Soc. France 12: 80 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 529 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud., Canne (1977: 370) noted that this was based on Mandon 80 & 81. A fragment of Mandon 80 at US is G. mandonii. The Mandon 81 specimens at F, GH, MO, and P are all G. quadriradiata, but a specimen at NY is G. mandonii.

*Galinsoga calva Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 61 (1893). Types: [Bolivia:] Talca Chugiaguilla, April 1890 [Bang] (809). Also collected subsequently in the vicinity of Cochabamba [Bang] (1148). The nomenclature of this species is extremely complicated and puzzling. A specimen in Herb. Columb. of Mandons No. 81, which is published by Schultz-Bipontinus in Bull. Soc. Bot. France as G. calva, is a good specimen of G. parviflora; but Dr. Britton says that the specimen of this number in Herb. Kew agrees with the one which I have above described. Syntype: Mandon 81, K; isosyntype (Bang 809): K, US (determined as isotypes by Canne).

Stemmatella congesta Wedd. ex O. Hoffm., Natrl. Pflanzenfam. 4(5): 231 (1891). Type: in den Anden von Bolivia, au erdem eine unverffentlichte, von Moritz in Merida gesammelt, . Note: Strangely, Canne (1977: 370) cited the holotype as Mandon 293, especially since Hoffmann clearly indicated it was a Moritz collection, presumably in Bí·•í˛†. Note: The date of this part of Natrl. Pflanzenfam. was confirmed in TLII.

*Galinsoga purpurea St. John & D.White, Rhodora 22(258): 98 (1920). Type: Bolivia: Bolivian Plateau, 1891, Miguel Bang, no. 1,148. Holotype: GH; isotype: K, US.

Argentina, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Potos ), Peru.

Galinsoga? oblongifolia (Hook.) DC., Prodr. 5: 677 (1836) = Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

*Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Icon. 3: 41, t. 281 (1795). Type: Verbesina biflora Hort. Reg. Parisiens. ... Habitat in Peruvia. 0. Floret Septembri. .... Obs. Hanc plantam vidi in Regio horto Pariensiensi anno 1785 nomine Verbesinae biflorae, ibi enata ex seminibus e Peruvia missis a D. Dombeyo; in patriam reduc vidi eam iterim in Regio horto Matritense, cuius nomen tandem mutatum fuit in debitum Galinsogae. Note: There are four sheets in MA which are variously marked as follows: MA (475684 Fiche 32/C6), with three handwritten labels: Vulgo Pacoyuyu/R. H. Matritensis/Sept. 1790 on the top label, Galinsoga parviflora/Icon. t. 281/Peru. 1794. on the middle label and Galinsoga parviflora Cav./ex Peruvia et Regno Chilensis/Ne Iter. on the bottom label, and one typed label indicating this is the lectotype of Galinsoga parviflora, determined by Dorothea L. Schulz, 19.7.1979 é’– this sheet has never been cited as the lectotype; it was also determined in 1978 as G. quadriradiata by Schulz; MA (475685 Fiche 33/A1) with two handwritten labels, the upper Galinsoga parviflora Cav./Ex Nov. Hispania/Ne Iter. and the lower é’‘Galinsoga parviflora/Cav. Ic./Ex Nov. Hispania/Ne Iter., together with a typewritten label é’‘Galinsoga parviflora Cav. and two determination slips the later as G. parviflora by Schulz; MA (475686 Fiche 33/A2) with one handwritten label Galinsoga parviflora Cav./Ex Lima/Ne Iter and one typewritten label indicating Galinsoga parviflora Cav., together with a determination label by Schulz as Galinsoga quadriradiata; MA (475687 é’– Fiche 33/A3) with one handwritten label Galinsoga parviflora/Cav. Ic./Ex Peruvia/Ne Iter. and one typewritten label indicating Galinsoga parviflora Cav. and one determination label by Schulz as Galinsoga quadriradiata. Clearly, this name warrants lectotypification, rather than the citation of é’‘Holotype: MA that appears in many flora accounts. Cavanilles, although seeing the plant in Paris, may well have written, or finished writing, his description based on the material in MA.

Galinsoga quinqueradiata Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. : 198 (1798), nom. illegit. superfl. based on Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Wiborgia acmella Roth, Catal. Bot. 2: 112 (1800). Type: Habitat in Peru. 0. ... Ab Indis vocatur haec planta Paica-Iullo, quam masticantur in affectibus ovis. Holotype: unknown, but probably B or B-W. Roths protologue citation referred to Feuilles J. Obs. (1714-25) in its German translation, Beschr. Arzen. Pfl. (1756), based on collections from Chile and Peru. Material from Rothé’’s herbarium went in part to B, some into B-W, the former now largely destroyed. It is possible some duplicated material may exist.

Galinsoga laciniata Retx. in D. G. F. Hoffm., Phytogr. Bltt. 1: 46 (1803). Type: not cited. Note: Canne (1977: 373) suggested that a specimen in LD represented the holotype.

Vigolina acmella (Roth) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 8: 613 (1808).

Wiborgia parviflora (Cav.) Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 201 (1818).

Sabazia microglossa DC., Prodr. 5: 497 (1836). Type: 䑬 in montanis circa Mexico ad S. Augustinum legit Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 733). (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC.

Sabazia microglossa DC. var. b puberula DC., Prodr. 5: 497 (1836). circa Mexico in montanis. (Berl.[andier]! pl. exs. n. 910). (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC.

Adventina parviflora Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 67 (1836). Type: Growing spontaneous for several years in the orchard of Bartrams Garden, come with seeds from the south. ... Probably a Florida plant..

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. semicalva A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. 5(Art. 6): 98 (1853). Type: Side of mountains, at the copper mines; Oct. ([Wright, 1851] 1268.) Holotype: GH (Barcode 8241); isotype: GH 2 (Barcodes 8239, 8240).

Galinsoga hirsuta Baker, Curators Rep. Thirsk Nat. Hist. Soc. 1861: 13 (1862), nom. nud. Note: Canne (1977: 374) accepted valid publication of this name and cited a holotype which cannot be the case.

Stemmatella sodiroi Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(): 601 (1901). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit in regione interandina (Sodiro n. 31/1). Holotype: B; isotype: US (?fragment of holotype).

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. genuina f. parceglandulosa Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21(14): 8 (1916). Types: ; die zweite ist besonders fr das s dliche Gebiet itteleuropas charakteristisch (Tessin, Veltlin, Comersee, Venetien [Vittorio, sonst meist f. 1], auch Zrich!!, S d-Tirol, Ungarn) und dominert auch in anderen meridionalen Gegenden der Erde (Peru: Lima [Pavon!], Mexiko!, Arizona! [auch Rhode Island!]. Sd-Afrika!, Java! Australien!), deutlich dr sig sind jedoch die Exemplare von Markelfingen am Untersee und solche von Frieburg i. Br!!, Stuttgart!!, Berlin und Stolp in Pommern. Lectotype (selected by Canne, 1977: 374): Australia: New South Wales, Cumberland Co., Erworben, 1913, T. V. Alkin s.n., Z.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. β adenophora Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21(14): 9 (1916). Types: So in typischer Ausbildung in Mexiko: Puebla, 1908, F. Arsne! 1909, F. Nicolas! (beide als G. brachystephana, Herb. Univ. Z rich), um So Paulo in Brasilien (A. Usteri! in Herb. Eidgen. Tech. Hochschule) und bei Buenos Aires (Umgebung des Hafens, 1899, G. Debeaux Nr. 92! in Herb. Montpell., comm. J. Daveau). In Europa bisher mit Sicherheit nur in England beobachtet: Kew (Surrey), 1901, F. H. Davey n. 812! in Herb. Univ. Z rich; eine angenherte Form fand sich 1907 im botanischen Garten Z rich (!!) verwildert vor. Lectotype (selected by Canne, 1977: 374): Usteri s.n., ZT; isolectotype: P.

Galinsoga semicalva (A. Gray) St. John & D. White, Rhodora 22(258): 100 (1920).

Galinsoga semicalva (A. Gray) St. John & D. White var. percalva S. F. Blake, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 30: 472 (1940). Type: [USA:] Arizona: Santa Rita Mountains, Pima County, David Griffiths & J. J. Thornber 162 (type no. 497226, U. S. Nat. Herb.); ... Holotype: US; isotype: NY.

Galinsoga sphaerocephala Jones ex S. F. Blake, Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 130 (1945), nom. illegit., pro syn.

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru. Widespread weed in temperate North America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia.

Albahaca silvestre, Saetilla (Freire et al., 2006).

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. b adenophora Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21: 9 (1916) = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. caracasana (DC.) A. Gray, Smithson. Contrib. Knowl. 5: 98 (1853) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

*Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. hispida DC., Prodr. 5: 677 (1836) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. [var.] * quadriradiata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 472 (1807) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. quadriradiata (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2(2): 701 (1812) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. semicalva A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. 5: 98 (1853) = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

*Galinsoga purpurea St. John & D.White, Rhodora 22: 98 (1920) = Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip.

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. : 198 (1798). Type: Habitat in Peruviae versuris, ruderatis et segetibus ad Limam et Chancay. Floret toto anno. Lectotype (selected by Schulz [made in 1979]): C3 on sheet 290 of microfiche of the Ruiz & Pavn herbarium.

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. [var.] * quadriradiata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 472 (1807).

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. quadriradiata (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2(2): 701 (1812).

Wiborgia urticifolia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 201, t. 389 (1818). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit juxta villam Marchionis de Miraflores, inter Mulalo et Pansache, alt. 1700 hex. (Regno Quitensi.) K Floret Junio. [Humboldt & Bonpland ó‘’‘n. 3055]. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Jaegeria urticifolia (Kunth) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 590 (1826).

Sabazia urticifolia (Kunth) DC., Prodr. 5: 497 (1836).

Vargasia caracasana DC., Prodr. 5: 676 (1836). Type: ad Caracas legit c. Vargas [267]. (v.s. comm. cl. inventore.) Holotype: G-DC.

*Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. hispida DC., Prodr. 5: 677 (1836). Types: Ň‘ in Mexico circa urbem (Berl.[andier]! pl. exs. n. 615), in Chilensibus montibus (h. Haenke!). ... (v.s.). Note: Material of the Berlandier collection is in G-DC, but there is no evidence of the Haenke material from Chile, this is probably in PR.

Adventina ciliata Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 67 (1836). Type: Found with the last, but in a different place and season: ... [q.v. Adventina parviflora see under Galinsoga parviflora above Growing spontaneous for several years in the orchard of Bartrams Garden, come with seeds from the south.] Location of type material, if extant, unknown.

Baziasa urticifolia (Kunth) Steud., Nomencl. Bot. 1: 192 (1840).

Galinsoga brachystephana Otto, Index Sem. Hort. Berol. (1840), nom. nud.

Galinsoga hispida Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulph. : 119 (1845). Types: Peyta, in Columbia, Guayaquil [Hinds]; gathered also by Cuming at Lima (n. 1028). Syntypes: K. Lectotype (selected by Canne, 1977: 356): Hinds s.n., K.

Wiborgia brachystephana (Otto) Heynh., Nomencl. Bot. Hort. : 707 (1846), comb. illegit. as apparently based on Galinsoga brachystephana, published a year later!

Galinsoga brachystephana Otto ex Heer & Regel, Index Sem. Hort. Bot. Turic. [ p. 2] (1846) [1847]. Type: not cited but based on cultivated material in Hort. Berol. Note: Canne (1977: 356) suggested that this material was probably in ZT.

Galinsoga hispida Benth. var. purpurascens Fenzl, Del. Sem. Hort. Vindob. Advers. Bot. Stirp. Sem. 1849/1850: 2 (1851), based on Galinsoga brachystephana Otto ex Heer & Regel

Galinsoga hispida Benth. var. albiflora Fenzl, Del. Sem. Hort. Vindob. Advers. Bot. Stirp. Sem. 1849/1850: 2 (1851), nom. nud.

Galinsoga urticifolia (Kunth) Benth. in Oerst., Vedensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren Kjbenhavn : 102 (1852).

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. caracasana (DC.) A. Gray, Smithson. Contrib. Knowl. 5: 98 (1853).

Galinsoga caracasana (DC.) Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 80 (1865).

Stemmatella sodiroi Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 601 (1901). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit in regione interandina (Sodiro n. 31/1). Holotype: B; isotype: US (?fragment of holotype). Note: Canne (1977: 374) originally placed this name in synonymy of G. paviflora.

Stemmatella lehmannii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 602 (1901). Type: ↑Columbia: crescit frequenter in vicinitate urbis Popayan, alt. s. m. 16002200 m (L.[ehmann] n. 5667). Holotype: B; isotype: K, US (fragment of holotype).

Stemmatella urticifolia (Kunth) O. Hoffm. ex Hieron. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 603 (1901).

Galinsoga humboldtii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 618 (1901). Type: Exstat inter plantas a cl. Humboldt et Bonpland collectas loco non indicato, a cl. Kunthio nomine Wibourgia urticaefolia var. achaeniis squamulis coronatis determinata.

Stemmatella urticifolia (Kunth) O. Hoffm. ex Hieron. var. eglandulosa Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 487 (1905). Type: Peruvia: crescit prope Cutervo (J.[elski] n. 609, m. Aprili 1879). Holotype: B.

Galinsoga hispida (DC.) Hieron., Notizbl. Knigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 19: 15 (1907), hom. illegit.

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. var. hispida (DC.) Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21(14): 11 (1916). Note: cited by many authors as var. Thellung actually wrote var. (vel subsp.)â‘’ and as such must be considered [unranked].

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. [unranked] quadriradiata f. vargasiana Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21(14): 14 (1916). Type: Die venezuelanische Pflanzen (= Vargasia caracasana DC.! sens. strict. ex specim. authent.) weicht, wie schon bemerkt (vgl. S. 3 und Fun. 2), vom Typus der Rasse durch ...ß’. Note: it is unclear what material is left once the apparent single specimen used by de Candolle is excluded! No other material applicable to this form was cited by Thellung, especially since he appear earlier to have ascribed the Vargas type material of de Candolles sname to this forma!

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. [unranked] quadriradiata f. purpurascens (Fenzl) Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21(14): 15 (1916).

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. [unranked] quadriradiata f. albiflora (Fenzl) Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21(14): 15 (1916).

Galinsoga aristulata E. P. Bicknell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 270 (1916), based on Galinsoga parviflora Cav. var. hispida DC., the validating description with its types, citing also the following material: A few plants on Easton Street in full flower September 13, 1907; Fair Street, September 19, 1914; specimen in the herbarium of Miss Grace B. Gardner.

Galinsoga bicolorata St. John & D. White, Rhodora 22(258): 99 (1920). Type: Mexico: altitude 4000-5500 feet, Tumbala, Chiapas, Oct. 20, 1895, E. W. Nelson, no. 3,356. Holotype: GH; isotype: US.

Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) S. F. Blake, Rhodora 24: 35 (1922).

Sabazia urticifolia (Kunth) DC. var. venezuelensis Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 672 (1953). Type: [Venezuela:] Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on pastured open slopes of mountain between Santa Domingo and Los Quebraditos, south of Las Sabanetas, above Humocavo Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 2430-2475m., February 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55379, rays lavender; disk golden. . Holotype: F; isotype: US.

Galinsoga eligulata Cuatrec., Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 9: 241 (1954). Type: Columbia, Dept. Caldas; Chinchin, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones del Caf , 1350-1400 m. alt., colect. 22-XI-1946 J. Cuatrecasas 23098. Hierba. Involucro verde, corolas amarillas. . Holotype: F.

Ageratum perplexans M. F. Johnson Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 58 (1): 80 (1971). Type: BOLIVIA. Yungas, 1890, A. Michael Bang 235. Holotype: MICH; isotypes: GH (a mix of G. parviflora and G. quadriradiata), MSC (a mix as in GH), MO, MSC (a mix as in GH), NY; US, WIS (a mix as in GH).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, West Indies. Widely introduced into temperate North America (Canada), Europe, Africa, Asia and the Philippines.

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. var. hispida (DC.) Thell., Allg. Bot. Zeit. Syst. 21: 11 (1916) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

Galinsoga quinqueradiata Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. : 198 (1798), nom. superfl. = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Galinsoga semicalva (A. Gray) St. John & D. White, Rhodora 22: 100 (1920) = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Galinsoga sphaerocephala Jones ex S. F. Blake, Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 130 (1945), nom. illegit., pro syn. = Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

*Galinsoga unxioides Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 198 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 198 (1879) = Galinsoga mandonii Sch.Bip.

Galinsoga urticifolia (Kunth) Benth. in Oerst., Vedensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren Kjbenhavn : 102 (1852) = Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.