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Elephantopus L., Sp. Pl. : 814 (1753)

Elephantosis Less., Linnaea 4(3): 322 (1829). Type: not stated. Lectotype (selected by Gleason, 1906: 238): Elephantosis biflora Less. = Elephantopus biflorus (Less.) Sch.Bip.

Pseudelephantopus Rohr, Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk, Kjobenhavn 2: 213 (1792), nom. et orth. cons. Type: Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) Rohr = Elephantopus spicatus Juss. ex Aubl.

Distreptus Cass., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 66 (1817). Type: not stated.

Matamoria LaLlave & Lex., Nov. Veg. Desc., fasc. 1: 8 (1824). Type: Matamoria spicata (Juss. ex Aubl.) La Llave = Elephantopus spicatus Juss. ex Aubl.

Spirochaeta Turcz., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 166 (1851). Type: Spirochaeta funckii Turcz. = Elephantopus spiralis (Less.) Clonts

Orthopappus Gleason, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 237 (1906). Type: Orthopappus angustifolius (Sw.) Gleason = Elephantopus angustifolius Sw.

Chaetospira S. F. Blake, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 25: 311 (1935). Type: Chaetospira funckii (Turcz.) S. F. Blake = Elephantopus spiralis (Less.) Clonts

Type: Elephantopus scaber L.

Reference

Clonts, J. A. (1972). A revision of the genus Elephantopus, including Orthopappus and Pseudelephantopus (Compositae). Unpublished PhD thesis, Missouri State University.

*Elephantopus angustifolius Sw., Prodr. : 115 (1788). Type: Sloan. h. I. 256. t. 148, f. 4. Jamaica. L. Holotype: BM-SL; isotype: S.

Elephantopus nudiflorus Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2390 (1804). Type: Habitat in St. Domingo. L Poiteau. (v. s.). Holotype: B-W (16769).

Elephantosis quadriflora Less., Linnaea 4(3): 323 (1829). Types: Sellow misit e Bras. trop; Beyrich legit ad latera montium pr. novo-Friburgo Jan. 1823; Schiede in collibus apricis pr. Hacienda de la Laguna Septbr. 1828. (v.sp..). Syntypes: B.

Distreptus crispus Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 60: 601 (1830), nom. illegit. pro E. nudiflorus Willd.

Elephantosis angustifolia (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 5: 87 (1836).

Elephantopus crispus (Cass.) D. Dietr., Syn. Pl. 4: 1372 (1847).

Elephantopus quadriflorus (Willd.) D. Dietr., Syn. Pl. 4: 1372 (1847).

Orthopappus angustifolius (Sw.) Gleason, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 238 (1906).

Argentina, Bolivia (Ben, La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela, West Indies (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Trinidad, St. Vincent).

Ben : Rusby 1313 (F).

La Paz: Britton & Rusby 344 (L); O. Buchtien 785 (GH, K), O. Buchtien 5733 (GH).

Santa Cruz: Miss. W. M. A. Brooke 5808 (BM); Herzog 1307 (L); J. Steinbach 5109 (F).

Lingua-de-vaca, Suai -au (Cabrera & Klein, 1980); Sus a del campo (Freire et al., 2006).

Elephantopus crispus (Cass.) D. Dietr., Syn. Pl. 4: 1372 (1847) = Elephantopus angustifolius Sw.

Elaphantopus cuneifolius Fourn., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 30: 186 (1883) = Melanthera nivea (L.) Small

Elephantopus hypomalacus S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 52: 20 (1917) = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

Elephantopus martii, Graham, Edinburgh New Phil. J. 8: 378 (1830) = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

Elephantopus mollis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 (ed. folio): 26 (1818). Type: Crescit in Provinciis Cuman et Caracas. K? Floret Sept. Jan.-' [Humboldt & Bonpland no. 627. Caracas. Quebrada de Catoche] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Elephantopus martii, Graham, Edinburgh New Phil. J. 8: 378 (1830). Types: Elephantopus scaber Herb. Martii. ... Seeds of this plant were sent to me from Mr Harris at Rio Janeiro by Captain Graham late of his Majestys Packet Services, in April 1829. It has been kept in the stove, and flowered in February and March last. [presumably 1830] I am enabled to identify it as the plant of Martius, by a specimen communicated by Martius himself to Dr Hooker, who, with his usual kindness, permitted me to examine all the species in his herbarium. The specimen alluded to was collected by Martius on the Rio Belmonte, too common a name to be very precise, but probably in or not far from the province of Rio Janeiro. Syntype: Communic. Martius 1827 K [marked as 2 on the sheet against the two parts] (although this sheet appears to have a second collection mounted on it Antigua. Dr Nicholson). Note: it is unknown if Graham made any specimens from the cultivated material in E.

Elephantopus sericeus Graham, Edinburgh New Phil. J. 10: 373 (1831). Types: This species was raised from seed sent to the Botanic Garden by Dr Krous of Dominica in 1829. It has been added to Dr Hookers herbarium from St. Vincent and Trinidad. Note: It is unknown if a specimen was prepared in E of the cultivated material. Only one specimen in K, ex herb. Hookerianum, is marked as Elephantopus martii, that of Imray 370 (from Dominica), and this may well be one of the syntypes alluded to by Graham. See also Elephantopus mollis Kunth var. capitulatus Domin

Elephantopus serratus Blanco, Fl. Filip. : 635 (1837). Type: Es comun en Malinta. Note: The location of Blancos herbarium is unknown.

Elephantopus scaber L. var. tomentosus Sch.Bip., Linnaea 20: 516 (1847). Type: (or was this a combination of Linnaeus E. tomentosus?)

Elephantopus hypomalacus S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 52: 20 (1917). Type: Costa Rica: Orotina, ca. 180 m., 29 Dec. 1915, Holway 314. Holotype: GH.

Elephantopus mollis Kunth var. capitulatus Domin, Acta Bot. Bohem. 9: 62 (1930). Types: I saw specimens from Isla de Pinos, Jamaica, Tortola, Dominica (IMRAY no. 370!), St. Vincent, Grenada, and Trinidad, but undoubtedly occurs also on several other islands. Isosyntype: Imray 370, K.

Elephantopus mollis Kunth var. bracteosus Domin, Acta Bot. Bohem. 9: 62 (1930). Type: As type specimens of this variety I regard my plants from Dominica (thickets and clearings on the Macouchere ridge, DOMIN 1926!), but I have seen this distinct form also from Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Jamaica, Martinique and Trinidad.

Elephantopus pilosus Philip., J. Bot. 77: 314 (1939). Type: I select as the type-specimen the sheet of Hostmann 875 in the British Museum Herbarium. [Dutch Guiana.] Holotype: BM; isotype: K.

Widespread in the American tropics. Introduced into tropical Africa and throughout tropical Asia.

Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz).

Britton (1891) cited Mapiri, 5,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1105); Yungas, 6,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1106).

La Paz: O. Buchtien 786 (F, GH, K, NY); O Buchtien 5732 (GH); O. Buchtien, s.n., August 1907 (L).

Santa Cruz: J. Steinbach 6115 (GH).

Erva-de-colgio, Erva-grossa, Erva-de-veado, Fumo-brabo, Fumo-da-mata, P -de-elefante, Suai , Suauai , Suaia, Sua u-ca, Sa ia (Cabrera & Klein, 1980); Bestuca, Lengua de vaca, Sus a, Tratan l te (Freire et al., 2006).

Elephantopus nudiflorus Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2390 (1804) = Elephantopus angustifolius Sw.

Elephantopus palustris Gardner, London J. Bot. 5: 237 (1846). Types: Hab. In marshes near the city of Oeiras, Province of Piauhy, (n. 2643); and in moist places between the Rio Claro and San Rom o, in the Province of Minas Geraes, (n. 4836). Lectotype (selected here): Gardner 4836 BM; isolectotypes: F, GH, K, NY, S.

Elephantopus vaginatus Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 426 (1847). Type: Hab. Near San Domingos, Province of Goyaz. May, 1840. [Gardner] 4200. Duplicates: BM, BR, F, K, NY.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz). Brazil, Paraguay.

Note: In his unpublished thesis Clonts (1972) lectotypified E. palustsris based on the material in BM.

Santa Cruz: J. Steinbach 1297, May 1915 (SMU); J. Steinbach 2162 (SMU); J. Steinbach 6968, 10 March 1925 (F, GH, K); Wood 12170, 25.5.1997 (K); Wood & Goyder 13073, 24.2.1998 (K).

Elephantopus pilosus Philip., London J. Bot. 77: 314 (1939) = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

Elephantopus quadriflorus (Willd.) D. Dietr., Syn. Pl. 4: 1372 (1847) = Elephantopus angustifolius Sw.

Elephantopus scaber sensu auct. = Elephantopus mollis Kunth. Foster (1958: 207) listed E. scaber L. most probably through the constant misidentification of E. mollis as the former.

Elephantopus scaber L. var. tomentosus Sch.Bip., Linnaea 20: 516 (1847) = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

Elephantopus sericeus Graham, Edinburgh New Phil. J. 10: 373 (1831) = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

Elephantopus serratus Blanco, Fl. Filip. : 635 (1837) = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

*Elephantopus spicatus Juss. ex Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guian. 2: 808 (1775). Type: Sloan. Hist. 1. pag. 256. tab. 150. fig. 3. 4. Cat. 123. Note: Much material from Sloanes herbarium is now in BM-SL, as are the original for many drawings; it is here that material should be sought to lectotypify this name. There is apparently no herbarium material in BM-SL.

Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) Rohr, Skr. Nat. Selsk. Kjobenhavn 2: 214 (1792).

Distreptus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 13: 367 (1819).

Matamoria spicata (Juss. ex Aubl.) La Llave & Lex., Nov. Veg. Descr. 1: 8 (1824).

Introduced into Africa (Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zanzibar), Asia (China, Malaya), Australia, Pacific Islands (Fiji, Hawaii, Guam, Philippines). Bolivia (La Paz), British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela, West Indies (Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Virgin Islands).

Britton (1891) cited Mapiri, 5,000 ft. ([Rusby] 1109).

Elephantopus spiralis (Less.) Clonts, N. Amer. Fl., ser. 2, 10: 198 (1978).

Distreptus spiralis Less., Linnaea 6: 690 (1831). Type: In. Jamaica lectum vidi specimen in Herbario Thunbergiano. Holotype: ?UPS.

Spirochaeta funckii Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 167 (1851). Types: Habitat in Columbia prope Laguayra. Funck coll. n. 358 et Galeotti herb. n. 380. Syntypes: ?KW; isosyntype: (Funck 358), K.

Chaetospira funckii (Turcz.) S. F. Blake, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 76: 301 (1938).

Pseudo-elephantopus funckii (Turcz.) Philip., J. Bot., London 76: 301 (1938).

Chaetospira spiralis (Less.) Asplund & S. F. Blake, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 52(1): 50 (1958).

Pseudelephantopus spiralis (Less.) Cronquist, Madroo 20: 255 (1970).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, West Indies (St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Tobago)

*Elephantopus tomentosus L., Sp. Pl. : 814 (1753), sensu Foster (1958) Note: Although listed by Foster (1958), this species is restricted to North America following Clonts (1972). Fosters concept is undoubtedly based on Fries (1906: 6) record in which he cited E. scaber L. var. tomentosus (L.) Sch.Bip. in synonymy of E. tomentosus] = Elephantopus mollis Kunth

Elephantopus vaginatus Gardner, London J. Bot. 6: 426 (1847) = -'Elephantopus palustris Gardner

Elephantosis angustifolia (Sw.) DC., Prodr. 5: 87 (1836) = Elephantopus angustifolius Sw.