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Cotula L., Sp. Pl. : 891 (1753) & Gen. Pl., ed. 5 : 380 (1754).

Lancisia Fabric., Enum.: 87 (1759). Type: Lancisia coronopifolia (L.) Rydb. = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cenia Comm. ex Juss., Gen. Pl.: 183 (1789). Type: Cenia turbinata (L.) Pers. = Cotula turbinata L.

Lancisia Lam., Tableau Encycl. t. 701, f. 13 (1797), nom. illegit., non Fabr. (1759). Based on Lancisia turbinata (L.) Poir. = Cotula turbinata L.

Strongylosperma Less., Syn. Gen. Compositae: 261 (1832). Type: Strongylosperma australe (Sieber ex Spreng.) Less. = Cotula australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Hook. f.

Otochlamys DC., Prodr. 6: 77 (1838). Type: Otochlamys eckloniana DC. = Cotula eckloniana (DC.) Levyns

Cenia Comm. ex Juss. sect. Actinocenia DC., Prodr. 6: 82 (1838). Type not designated.

Cenia Comm. ex Juss. sect. Discocenia DC., Prodr. 6: 82 (1838). Type not designated.

Cotula L. [unranked] I. Eucotula K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843). Type not designated.

Cotula L. [unranked] II. Cotulopsis K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843). Type not designated.

Cotula L. [unranked III. Cotulodes K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843). Type not designated.

Cotula L. [unranked] IV. Pseudo-cotula K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843). Type not designated.

Pleiogyne K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 40 (1843), nom. illegit. superfl. (as gen. nov. including Strongylosperma Less.), non Pleogyne Miers (1851) [MENISPERMACEAE].

Pleiogyne [unranked] I. Strongylosperma (Less.) K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 40 (1843), comb. illegit., based on Strongylosperma Less.

Pleiogyne [unranked] II. Pleiogynodes K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 40 (1843), nom. illegit.

Pleiogyne [unranked] III. Eupleiogyne K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 40 (1843), nom. illegit.

Sphaeroclinium Sch.Bip., Tanacet.: 20 (1844). Type: Sphaeroclinium nigellifolium (DC.) Sch.Bip. (based on Matricaria nigellifolia DC.) = Cotula nigellifolia (DC.) K. Bremer & Humphries

Gymnogyne Steetz in Lehm., Pl. Preiss. 1: 431 (1845), non Didr. (1850) (= Boehmeria Jacq. [URTICACEAE]). Type: Gymnogyne cotuloides Steetz = Cotula cotuloides (Steetz) Druce

Ctenosperma Hook. f., London J. Bot. 6: 115 (1847), non Ctenosperma Lehm. & Pfeiff. (1874), nom. nud. pro syn. = Silphiosperma Steetz = Brachycome Cass. sect. Silphiosperma (Steetz) Benth. Type: Ctenosperma alpinum Hook. f. = Cotula alpina (Hook. f.) Hook. f.

Cotyla O. Kuntze & Post, Lexicon Gen. Phan. : 145 (1903), orth. var.

Type: Cotula coronopifolia L.

References

Ariza Espinar, L. (1997). Cotula. In: Tribu VII. Anthemideae. 280. Asteraceae, parte 7. Flora Fanerogmica Argentina. Fasc. 46. Programa PROFLORA (CONICET), C rdoba. pp. 135. [1720]

Cabrera, A. L. (1949). Sinopsis del gnero Soliva (Compositae). Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot. 14(No. 70): 123139.

Caro, J. A. (1961). Las especies de Cotula (Compositae) del centro de la Republica Argentina. Kurtziana 1: 289--298.

Freire, S. E. & L. Ariza Espinar. (1999). Tribe Anthemideae. Asteraceae. In: F. O. Zuloaga & O. Morrone (eds), Catlogo de laas plantas vasculares de la Rep blica Argentina II, AcanthaceaeEuphorbiaceae (Dicotyledoneae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. vol. 74. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Key to species

1. Receptacle pilose; disc floret corollas 3-lobed; stamens 4; achenes isomorphic C. mexicana

Receptacle glabrous; disc floret corollas 4-lobed; stamens 4; achenes dimorphic 2

2. (1) Plants glabrous, somewhat fleshy; marginal florets uniseriate; capitula medium, c. 8 mm diam. C. coronopifolia

Plants pubescent, membranaceous; marginal florets 3-seriate; capitula small, 35 mm diam. C. australis

Cotula alba (L.) L., Syst. Nat. 2: 564 (1767) = Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Cotula australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Hook. f., Fl. Nov.-Zel. : 128 (1853).

Anacyclus australis Sieber ex Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 497 (1826). Type: Nov. Holl. Holotype ?P; isotypes K 2. Note: There are two Sieber collections in K, one unnumbered, the other marked as Fl. Novae Holl. 331. Dietrich (1881) provided a complete listing of the 645 collections Sieber made in Australia; 331 is the only collections given the name of Cotula australis.

Strongylosperma australe (Sieber ex Spreng.) Less., Syn. Gen. Compositae : 261 (1832).

Pleiogyne australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 40 (1843), comb. illegit.

Cotula venosa Colenso, Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst. 23: 388 (1890) [1891]. Type: [New Zealand] Hab. Forming small patches in open woods south of Dannevirke, County of Waipawa; 1890; W. C[olenso]. Holotype: ?WELT.

Lancisia australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 286 (1916).

Argentina, Australia, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija), Canada, Canary Islands, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Hawaiian Islands (East Maui), Malawi, New Zealand, Peru, Tanzania, Tristan da Cunha group (Nightingale Island), U.S.A., Zimbabwe. British Isles (alien).

Note: Following Cabrera (1949: 139) some authors (e.g. Caro, 1961; Ariza Espinar, 1997; Freire & Ariza Espinar, 1999) have placed Soliva tenella A. Cunn. into the synonymy of C. australis. This has clearly been done in the absence of examining the type material which is clearly of a species of Leptinella, q.v. L. tenella (A. Cunn.) D. G. Lloyd & C. J. Webb.

Chuquisaca: Wood 9187

Cochabamba: Steinbach 5831; Wood 9237

La Paz: Fuentes et al. 8421

Santa Cruz: Steinbach 8446

Tarija: Wood 12604

Cotula bracteolata E. Mey. ex DC., Prodr. 6: 78 (1838) = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cotula cabrerae Caro, Kurtziana 1: 295 (1961), nom. nov. pro Soliva pedicellata Ruiz & Pav. et Cotula pedicellata (Ruiz & Pav.) Cabrera, non Compton (1941) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Cotula coronopifolia L., Sp. Pl. : 892 (1753). Habitat in Aethiopia, nunc in Frisiae inundatis prope Eradon. Moehringio teste. Lectotype (selected by Humphries in Jarvis et al., 1993: 38): Herb. Clifford: 417, Cotula No. 2. BM.

Cotula integrifolia Burch., Trav. Inter. S. Africa 1: 51 (1822). [Based on Burchell Cat. Geog. 515]

Cotula montevidensis Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 497 (1826). Type: Monte Video. Sello.

Cotula bracteolata E. Mey. ex DC., Prodr. 6: 78 (1838). [Type: ad Cap. Bonae-Spei loco dicto Paarden Eyland legit cl. Drege. C. integrifolia Burch. cat. geog. 515 voy. 1. p. 61? sed descr. non suffic. (v.s.)], nom. illegit. superfl. Burchells name was perfectly well validated making de Candolles superfluous.

Cotula integrifolia Hook. f., Fl. Tasm. 1: 192. t. 50 B (1856), nom. illegit. (later homonym) non Burch. (1822).

Cotula coronopifolia L. var. minima Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 43: 504 (1873). [Note: In a separately paginated reprint/preprint in K this appeared on p. 28]. Type: En los peascos a orillas del mar de la bah a de Corral se hallan plantitas, .... Holotype: SGO 60582 (Pizarro, 1960: 139).

Cotula coronopifolia L. var. integrifolia Rodway, Tasman. Fl. : 80 (1903), based on Cotula integrifolia Hook. f. [Type: [Tasmania] Hab. Moist ground near Georgetown, growing intermixed with Desvauxiae and other plants, [21/11/42] Gunn [1153]. (Fl. Nov.) Holotype: K the sheet is accompanied by a series of detailed dissections on an attached piece of paper continued onto the sheet itself; these form the basis for the plate lithographed by Fitch for Flora Tasmaniae. Note: There is a second Gunn collection at K which has a similar field collecting label to that of the holotype bearing the same date; also present is a further field label Desvauxia sp./Cotula sp./not known/George Town/21/11/42/X/10/1/43 suggesting the two taxa were collected together, hence Hookers note. An additional note is attached to the sheet: Strongylospermae/The species of this genus are inhabitants of our marshes where they form large patches./404 grows in the wet marshes of the Tamar where it is overflowed by spring tides in Summer, & is almost always under water in Winter.]

Lancisia coronopifolia (L.) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 286 (1916).

Angola, Argentina, Australia, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, British Isles, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uruguay, U.S.A.

Cochabamba: Steinbach 176; Wood & Atahuachi 20914

Chuquisaca: Wood 8734

Santa Cruz: Wood & Goyder 15779

Cotula coronopifolia L. var. integrifolia Rodway, Tasman. Fl. : 80 (1903), based on Cotula integrifolia Hook. f. = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cotula coronopifolia L. var. minima Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 43: 504 (1873) = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cotula integrifolia Burch., Trav. Inter. S. Africa 1: 51 (1822) = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cotula integrifolia Hook. f., Fl. Tasm. 1: 192. t. 50 B (1856), nom. illegit., later homonym, non Burch. (1822) = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 8: 207 (1960).

Hippia minuta L.f., Suppl. : 389 (1781). Type: Habitat in America meridionali. Mutis. [136] Holotype: LINN 1039.2.

Soliva pedicellata Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. : 113 (1794). Type not cited. Ruiz & Pav., Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. : 215 (1798) cited Habitat in Mua humidis locis. Floret ab Augusto ad Novembrem. ?Holotype: MA [There is one sheet, marked as C1 on sheet 287 of the microfiche of the Ruiz & Pav n herbarium. It has a full list of names provided by Domke, relating to the herbarium names appearing in Euparope and the literature. At the top of this label is written Cotypus?. The label, probably written by Pavn, merely says Soliva pedunculata/de Chile] the material consisting of seven plants.

Soliva pygmaea Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 238 (1818). Type: '-'Crescit locis temperatis Andium Quinduensium, alt. 1130 hex. K Floret Octobri. [Humboldt & Bonpland in andibus Quinduensibus.] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Soliva minuta (L. f.) Sw., Hort. Brit. ed. 2 : 317 (1830).

Gymnostyles peruviana Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 500 (1826), nom. illegit. superfl., based on Soliva pedunculata Ruiz & Pav., the name written on the label of the sheet in the Ruiz & Pavn herbarium in MA)

Soliva mexicana DC., Prodr. 6: 143 (1838). Type: in Mexico. Gymnostyles pedunculata Mo . fl. mex. icon. ined. ... (v. ic.)

Soliva pedunculata Ruiz & Pav. ex Steud., Nomen. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 609 (1841), nom. superfl. illegit. (based on Gymnostyles peruviana).

Cotula valparadisea Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 43: 503 (1873).[Note: In a repaginated reprint/preprint in K this appears on p. 27.] Type: El seor don Tom s King ha hallado esta interesante especie cerca de Valparaso, i ha obsequiado un ejemplar al museo. Holotype: SGO.

*Cotula pygmaea (Kunth) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 230 (1881), comb. illegit., non Poir. (1810) (= Nananthea perpusilla (Lois.) DC.)

Cotula minuta (L.f.) Schinz, Mem. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat. 5: 429 (1913), non G. Forst. (1786) (= Centipeda minima (L.) A. Braun & Asch.)

Lancisia minuta (L.f.) Rydb., N. Amer. Fl. 34(3): 287 (1916).

Cotula pedicellata (Ruiz & Pav.) Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot. 14(No. 70): 139 (1949), comb. illegit., non Compton (1941).

Cotula cabrerae Caro, Kurtziana 1: 295 (1961), nom. nov. pro Soliva pedicellata Ruiz & Pav. et Cotula pedicellata (Ruiz & Pav.) Cabrera, non Compton (1941)

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Santa Cruz), Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru.

Cochabamba: Wood et al. 20976

La Paz: Wood et al. 18944

Cotula minuta (L.f.) Schinz, Mem. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat. 5: 429 (1913), non G. Forst. (1786) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Cotula minuta (L.f.) Schinz, Mem. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat. 5: 429 (1913), non G. Forst. (1786) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Cotula montevidensis Spreng., Syst. Veg., 3: 497 (1826) = Cotula coronopifolia L.

Cotula pedicellata (Ruiz & Pav.) Cabrera, Notas Mus. La Plata, Bot. 14(No. 70): 139 (1949), comb. illegit., non Compton (1941) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

*Cotula pygmaea (Kunth) Benth. & Hook. ex Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 230 (1881), comb. illegit., non Poir. (1810) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Cotula valparadisea Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 43: 503 (1873) = Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera

Cotula venosa Colenso, Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst. 23: 388 (1890) [1891] = Cotula australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Hook. f.

Cotula viscosa L., Sp. Pl. : 892 (1753) = Egletes viscosa (L.) Less.

Crantzia ovata Vell., Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 153 (1831) = Centratherum punctatum Cass. ssp. punctatum

Crassina intermedia (Engelm.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 331 (1891) = Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassina leptopoda (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 331 (1891) = Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassina multiflora (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 331 (1891)= Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassina peruviana (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 331 (1891) = Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassina peruviana (L.) Kuntze var. flava Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 143 (1898) = Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassina tenuiflora (Jacq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 331 (1891) = Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassina verticillata (Andr.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 331 (1891) = Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Crassocephalum valerianifolium (Wolf) Less., Linnaea 5: 163 (1830) = Erechtites valerianifolia (Wolf) DC. var. valerianifolia