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Cosmos Cav., Icon. Descr. pl. 1: 9, t. 14, 79 (1791).

Cosmea Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 5, 3(2): 2250 (1803), orth. var.

Cosmus Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 477 (1807), orth. var.

Type: Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

References

Hind, [D. J.] N. (2005). Plate 532. Cosmos peucedanifolius. Compositae. Curtiss Bot. Mag. 22: 161168.

Robinson, H. (2006). Cosmos. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera AL. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 121125.

Sherff, E. E. (1929). New or otherwise noteworthy Compositae. III. Contributions from the Hull Botanical Laboratory 397. Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 285308, plates XVIIXXI.

Sherff, E. E. (1932). Revision of the genus Cosmos. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. ser. 8(6): 401447.

Sherff, E. E. (1934). Some new or otherwise noteworthy members of the families Labiatae and Compositae. Bot. Gaz. 96(1): 136153.

Key to species

1.Plants annual with fibrous roots; 2

Plants perennial with tuberous rootstock; 4

2. (1) Leaves pinnatisect, segments narrowly linear; paleae lanceolate, apices filiform or subulate; body and beak of achene not usually exserted from capitulum at maturity C. bipinnatus

Leves pinnatisect, segments lanceolate to elliptic-ovate, rarely linear; paleae apices obtuse or attenuate, sometimes acuminate; body and beak of achene well exserted from capitulum at maturity 3

3. (2)Rays white or pink, never yellow; outer phyllaries equal to or a little shorter than inner C. caudatus

Rays golden yellow, suphur-yellow, or orangeish; outer phyllaries about to 1/3 length of inner C. sulphureus

4. (1)Rays pinks, violet or sometimes white C. peucedanifolius

Rays yellow [although Sherff had neither roots nor mature achenes!] C. herzogii

Cosmos aurantiacus Klatt, Leopoldina 25: 105 (1889) = Cosmos sulphureus Cav.

Cosmos bipinnatus Cav., Ic. Descr. 1: 10, pl. 14 (1791). Type: Habitat in Mexico. 0. Floriut in Regio horto Matritensi annis 1789 et 1790 mensibus Octob. Novemb. et Decemb. Note: The original material in MA is represented by a few sheets. MA (475588 Fiche 27/A4) is simply labelled Cosmos bipinnatus on a type written label; MA (475587 Fiche 27/A5) bears three handwritten labels, the top Cosmos bipinnatus Cav./H. M. M. 1829, the middle Cosmos bipinnatus/H. B. M., the bottom Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. ic. 7a. 14/Cosmea bipinnata Willd. Syng. pa 2250/ex Herb. Botani. Hispalens. anno 1797., together with a typewritten label Cosmos bipinnatus Cav./Mejic 1789-1790; MA (475586 Fiche 27/A6) bears just a typewritten label with the same text as MA 475587; MA (475586 [sic!] Fiche 27/A7) bears a handwritten label Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Icon. tab. 14/ Mexico 1789-1790 and a typewritten label with the name and Horto B. Hispalensis. Sherff (1932) noted that the description was based on several specimens but did not select a lectotype.

Cosmos formosa Bonato, Pisaura automorpha e Coreopsis formosa: 22 (1793). Type: ..., finalmente annua ed indigina del Per , vive all aria aperta, ... Note: it is unclear if Bonanto preserved material, nor where his herbarium might be located.

Cosmea bipinnata (Cav.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2250 (1803).

Georgia bipinnata (Cav.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 611 (1826).

Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. var. b exaristatus DC., Prodr. 5: 606 (1836). Types: in Mexico (Alam.!) ad Pezcuaro (H. et B.), Oaxaca (Andr.! pl. exs. n. 307). S. Angel. (Berl.! pl. exs. n. 938). Haec var. sola in hortis mihi notis nunc colitur et sola provenit in herb. Mexic. (v. s. sp. et v. c.). Syntypes: all, except the Humboldt & Bonpland collection are in G-DC; isosyntype (Andrieux 307): K 2.

Cosmos tenuifolius Lindl., Bot. Reg. 23: pl. 2007 (1837). Type: A beautiful annual Mexican plant, ... The drawing was made in the garden of the Horticultural Society, where it has been raised from seeds presented by George Frederick Dickson, Esq. F. H. S. ... Holotype: ?CGE.

Cosmea tenuifolia (Lindl.) J. W. Loudon, Ladies Flower-Gard.: 185 (Feb. 1840); cf. D.J. Mabberley in Taxon, 32(1): 87 (1983). Although Mabberley cited this as 1840, a date supported in TLII, the latter also notes a problem with dates, especially since the title page indicates 1842.

Cosmea tenifolia (Lindl.) Lindl. ex Heynhold, Nom. Bot. Hort.: 223 (Sept.-Oct. 1840), comb. superfl., but see note above.

Bidens formosa (Bonato) Sch.Bip in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 307 (1856).

Bidens lindleii Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 307 (1856), nom. nov. pro Cosmos tenuifolius Lindl.

Bidens bipinnata Baill., Hist. Pl. 8: 50 (1886), nom. illegit. non L. (1753).

Cosmos hybridus Goldring, Gard. & Forest. 1: 474 (1888). Type: not cited, although Goldring mentioned only that Though a Mexican plant ... Note: oddly, this name is attributed to Hort., although it is quite clear that the article describing this plant was by William Goldring, as W.G.. It is unclear if herbarium material was preserved.

Cosmos spectabilis Carrire, Rev. Hort. 64: 372 (1892). Note: although of hybrid origin the material upon which Carriere based his descriptions was cited as Disons dYT'abord que les plantes que nous avons tudi es provenaient de graines que avaient t semes en f vrier dernier dans les cultures de M. Forgeot, Vincennes, ...

Cosmos Ҵspectabilis Carrire var. alba Carr., Rev. Hort. 64: 373 (1892). Note: see comment above.

Cosmos spectabilis Carri re var. rosea Carr., Rev. Hort. 64: 374 (1892). Note: see comment above.

Bidens lindleyii Sch.Bip. ex B. D. Jacks., Index Kewensis 1: 301 (1895), nom. nud. et superfl.

Widespread from Arizona (USA) to central Mexico. Widely cultivated and frequently an escape, now widely naturalized in many areas in the tropics. Bolivia (La Paz, Tarija) naturalized, but probably widely cultivated.

*Cosmos caudatus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 (ed. folio): 188 (1818). Type: Crescit prope Havanam Insul Cub . Floret Martio. Holotype: P.

Cosmea caudata (Kunth) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 454 (1826).

Bidens caudata (Kunth) Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 308 (1856).

Bidens berteriana Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 454 (1826). Type: Portorico. (Coreopsis coronata Bertero.)

Cosmos caudatus Kunth var. exaristatus Sherff, Brittonia 16(1): 66 (1964). Type: McVaugh 18019, abundant on banks anad disturbed ground; annual to 2 m tall, selected small specimens; rays deep pink, paler after opening, and often white toward base; disk yellow; ungrazed hillsides in Bouteloua grassland, alt. 450-500 m, summit of Canon El Marqus, 5 mi n of Nueva Italia, Michoac n, Mexico, 19 Sep 1958. Holotype: MICH.

Native of Central America, Mexico. Widely cultivated and naturalized. Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Cosmos caudatus Kunth var. exaristatus Sherff, Brittonia 16(1): 66 (1964) = Cosmos caudatus Kunth

*Cosmos diversifolius Otto, Fl. Cab. 2: 6, t. 47 (1838). Cited in Foster (1958: 207), this Mexican species has not been recorded for Bolivia and is most probably a misdetermination for C. peucedanifolius.

Cosmos formosa Bonato, Pisaura automorpha e Coreopsis formosa: 22 (1793) = Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

*Cosmos herzogii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 96(1): 148 (1934). Type: Theodor Herzog 496, an abundant half-shrub (Halbstrauch) on sandstone, alt. about 900 m., summit of Cerro San Miserate, Chiquitos, Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 1907. Holotype: B presumably destroyed.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Cosmos hybridus Goldring, Gard. & Forest. 1: 474 (1888) = Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

*Cosmos integrifolius Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 70 (June 1856) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. var. cochabambensis (Kuntze) Sherff

Cosmos marginatus Klatt, Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 15: 328 (1881)[Neue Compositen, in dem Herbar des Herrn Francaville, p. 8 in pre-print in K] = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. var. tiraquensis (Kuntze) Sherff

*Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 70 (June 1856). Type: Hab. Bolivia (prov. Tomina): in graminosis excelsis montis Curi (Wedd[ell]. [3737]). Holotype (q.v. Sherff, 1932: 441): P.

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898).

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] a bipinnatisecta Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Sp. 3(3): 137 (1898). Types: Bolivia: [1] 3400 m Tunari, [May 4 1892 Kuntze] [2] Cochabamba Rio Juntas 3000 m. [April 1892, Kuntze]. Syntypes: NY; isosyntype: [1] MO; [2] MO.

*Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] g soratensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898). Type: Bolivia: Sorata (No. 1302 Bang im Berl. bot. Museum). Holotype: B; isotypes (q.v. Sherff 1932: 440): GH, K, MO, NY, PH, US, WU.

Argentina, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba), Peru.

Key to varieties of C. peucedanifolius, if recognition is required.

1. Leaves entire or rarely pinnate var. cochabambensis

Leaves usually bipinnatisect 2

2. (1)Leaf segments (usually narrow) linear or linear-spathulate C. peucedanifolius s.s.

Leaf segments usually lanceolate or ovate var. tiraqunsis

*var. cochabambensis (Kuntze) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 307 (1929).

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] d cochabambensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898). Type: Bolivia: Cochabamba (1021 Bang im Berlin, bot. Museum). Holotype: B; isotypes: GH, K, MO, NY, PH, US. Note: Sherff (1932) actually stated that the type (= holotype) was in NY. This is untrue since Kuntze specifically cited the specimen in B, which was extant at the time of Sherffs paper, but since destroyed in WWII. Hind (2005: 163) effectively lectotypified this name based on the material in NY, originally selected by Sherff.)

*Cosmos integrifolius Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 70 (June 1856). Type: Hab. Bolivia (Prov. Azero): in declivibus saxosis montis Aquio, alt. 1800 m. (Wedd.[ell]). Holotype: P. Note: Sherff (1932) cited the Weddell collection as H. A. Weddell 3663, Province of Acero, Department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia, November and December, 1845.

Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba).

*var. tiraquensis (Kuntze) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 307 (1929).

Cosmos subpubescens Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 70 (June 1856). Type: Hab. Peruvia: in montibus prov. Cuzco! [October 1839February 1840] (Gay). Holotype: P.

Cosmos (Bidens) pulcherrimus Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 54)

Bidens (Cosmos) pulcherrima Sch.Bip., Linnaea 36: 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 54).

Cosmos marginatus Klatt, Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 15: 328 (1881) [Neue Compositen, in dem Herbar des Herrn Francaville, on p. 8 of pre-print in K]. [Note: Stafleu & Cowan (1979) suggested that the correct citation, and the therefore date, is taken from the journal; I disagree, since the pre-print was effectively published in the preceding year.] Type: In Peruvia, provincia Chachapoyas, leg. Mathews, sine No. Holotype: GH (2 sheets acc. to Sherff, 1932: 442); isotypes: K there are two sheets at K that are most certainly types: the first, Mathews s.n., is simply labelled Chachapoyas. Mathews, 1835. (ex Herb. Benthamianum); the second (ex Herb. Hookerianum) is labelled Prov. Chachapoyas Peru, but the sheet has Mathews 1836 74 H written in ink on it). Holotype: P (Herb. Francaville) - See note under Antennaria linearifolia.

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] b tiraquensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898). Type: Bolivia: 4000 m Tiraqui [April 14, 1892 Kuntze]. Holotype: NY.

Bolivia (La Paz, Tarija), Peru.

Cosmos pilosus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl.. 4 (ed. folio): 189 (1818) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Cosmos pulcherrimus Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 54, sub Cosmos (Bidens) pulcherrimus) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. var. tiraquensis (Kuntze) Sherff

Cosmos spectabilis Carrire, Rev. Hort. 64: 372 (1892) = Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

Cosmos spectabilis Carri re var. alba Carr., Rev. Hort. 64: 373 (1892) = Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

Cosmos spectabilis Carrire var. rosea Carr., Rev. Hort. 64: 374 (1892) = Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

Cosmos subpubescens Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 70 (June 1856) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. var. tiraquensis (Kuntze) Sherff

Cosmos sulphureus Cav., Icon. Descr. 1: 56, pl. 79 (1791). Type: Habitat in Mexico. 0. Floruit in Regio horto Matritensi mense Novembri.'' Holotype: MA. Note: There is one sheet in MA (475589 Fiche 27/A8) which is taken as the holotype. There is one handwritten label on the sheet Cosmos sulphureus M./Icon. Tab. 79/Coreopsis artemisiefolia Jacq. Ic./tab. 525 Coll. 5. p. 155./Habitat in Mexico H. B. Mt. and one typewritten label Cosmos sulpureus Cav./Mjico.

Cosmea sulphurea (Cav.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 2250 (1804).

Bidens sulphureus (Cav.) Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 308 (1857).

Coreopsis artemisiifolia Jacq., Ic. Rar. 3: 16, pl. 595 (1793). Type: not cited.

Cosmos aurantiacus Klatt, Leopoldina 25: 105 (1889). Type: ''Crescit in campis Tacontenango pro Guatemala, flor. Dec., leg. Gust. Bernoulli 1865. Holotype: B. Note: Kaltt expressly described this taxon in material cited as Compositae Guatemalenses et Costaricenses ex Herb. Mus. Berol. determinatae et novae descriptae.

Bolivia (Ben, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico. Widespread and widely cultivated in the tropics.

Cosmos (Freire et al., 2006).

Cosmos tenellus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 188 (1818) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Cosmos tenuifolius Lindl., Bot. Reg. 23: pl. 2007 (1837) = Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

Cotula L. [unranked] II. Cotulopsis K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843) = Cotula L.

Cotula L. [unranked III. Cotulodes K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843) = Cotula L.

Cotula L. [unranked] IV. Pseudo-cotula K. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1: 39 (1843) = Cotula L.