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Clibadium L., Mant. Pl. : 161 (1771).

Baillieria Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 2: 804, t. 317 (1775). Type: Baillieria aspera Aubl. = Clibadium surinamense L.

Trixis Sw., Prodr. : 115 (1788), non P. Br., Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica [MUTISIEAE]. Type: Trixis aspera (Aubl.) Sw. = Clibadium surinamense L.

Oswaldia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 59: 322 (1829). Type: Oswaldia baillierioides Cass. = Clibadium surinamense L.

Orsinia Bertol. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 104 (1836). Type: Orsinia eupatoria DC. = Clibadium armanii (Balb.) Sch.Bip.

Trichapium Gilli, Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 94: 312 (1983). Type: Trichapium strigosum Gilli = Clibadium manabiense H. Rob.

Type: Clibadium surinamense L.

References

Arriagada, J. E. (2003). Revision of the genus Clibadium (Asteraceae, Heliantheae). Brittonia 55(3): 245301.

Robinson, H. (2006). Clibadium. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera AL. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 84113.

Schulz, O. E. (1912). Beitrge zur Kenntnis der Gattung Clibadium. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46(5): 613628.

Key to species [*C. surinamense is added to the key just in case it is eventually recognized as occurring in Bolivia and for comparison with C. peruvianum]

1. Paleae subtending only female florets 2

Paleae subtending all florets (sometimes with 1YT-2 central florets not subtended by pleae); male floret corollas 3-lobed C. micranthum

2. (1) Male floret corollas 4-lobed; phyllaries 5-veined; achenes villous; leaf margins serrate to crenate-serrate to serrate-dentate *C. surinamense

Male floret corollas 5-lobed; phyllaries 7-veined; achenes glabrous; leaf margins finely and irregularly serrate or mucronate-dentate 3

3. (2) Leaves membranaceous, apices acute, bases attenuate, margins finely and irregularly serrate; male florets 19; phyllaries 3, 7-veined C. peruvianum

Leaves subcoriaceous, rigid, apices acuminate, bases rounded, margins mucronate-dentate; male florets <10; phyllaries 34, 5-veined C. armanii

Clibadium armanii (Balb.) Sch.Bip. ex O. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46(5): 616 (1912).

Eupatorium armanii Balb., Hort. Taur. Stirp. 1: 27, t. 6 (1810). Type: Quoniama hance Eupatorii speciem obtinui e seminibus a cl. superius laudato Viro Philippo Armano missis, ut publicam grati animi mei significationem tribuerem, tanti amici et viri praestantissimi nomine insignire existimavi./Planta colitur in olla, hyeme in tepidario collacatur. Floret augusto. Fructicans. Holotype: TO.

Clibadium rotundifolium DC., Prodr. 5: 505 (1836). Types: L in Brasili circa Bahiam legerunt cl. Salzmann [36], Blanchet [722], etc., in prov. Sancti-Pauli (h. Mus. Bras. n. 466). ... (v.s.). Syntypes: Salzmann 36 & Blanchet 722, G-DC. Syntype: ''h. Mus. Bras. 466, P. Isosyntypes: Salzmann 36, K 2. Lectotype (selected by Arriagada, 2003: 283): Blanchet 632, NY. Note: This is a little odd since there is a perfectly good specimen in G-DC! There is also other material in G-DC with this name.

Clibadium armanii (Balb.) Sch.Bip., Linnaea 30: 80 (1859-60), nom. nud.

Clibadium armanii (Balb.) Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 152 (1884), comb. illegit. pro syn.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil, Paraguay.

Santa Cruz, Velasco, 16.11.2003, Wood et al. 20007.

Note: Arriagada (2003: 283) cited Clibadium armanii (Balb.) Sch.Bip. ex O. E. Schulz, Linnaea 30: 180. 1859., an impossibility since Schulz (1874-1936) could not have made the combination at that date! The combination dates from Schulzs revision.

*Clibadium asperum (Aubl.) DC., Prodr. 5: 506 (1836). Note: Foster (1958: 206) recorded this name, a synonym of Clibadium surinamense L., a species not recorded for by Bolivia by Arriegada (2003).

*Clibadium heterotrichum S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 52: 3 (1917) = Clibadium peruvianum Poepp. in DC.

Clibadium micranthum O. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46: 625 (1912). Type: Hab. in Peruvia: Ruiz n. 3. Holotype: B (photos F, GH, MO). Note: Arriagada (2003: 289), although noting that the holotype had been destroyed did not neotypify the name in his revision.

Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

*Clibadium peruvianum Poepp. in DC., Prodr. 5: 505 (1836). Type: (Poepp.! pl. exs. n. 35. diar. n. 1611) ... L in Peruvi legit cl. Poeppig. .... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC.

*Clibadium remotiflorum O. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46: 621 (1912). Types: ''Hab. in Brasilia in prov. Amazonas prope Sta. Maria de Marmellos in cultis m. Mart. fl. et fr.: E.Ule n. 6103; Bolivia ad vicum Cochabamba: Miguel Bang n. 1203. Lectotype (selected by Arriagada, 2003: 281): Bang 1203 K.

*Clibadium heterotrichum S. F. Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 3(52): 3 (1917). Type: Bolivia: Polo-Polo, near Coroico, Distr. La Paz, 1100 m., Oct.-Nov. 1912, Buchtien sine num. Holotype: BM; isotypes: K, MO, US.

Clibadium psilogynum S. F. Blake, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21: 329 (1931). Type: Peru: Marcapata Valley, near Chilechile, Prov. Quispicanchi, Dept. Cuzco, 21 Feb. 1929, A. Weberbauer 7864. Holotype: US (1442738); isotypes: F, GH.

Clibadium vargasianum H. Rob., Wrightia 6: 46 (1979). Type: Peru: Madre de Dios: Prov. Manu: Carbn Salvacion, habitat monte alt 670 m., 24 Nov. 1965, Vargas 16928. Holotype: US.

Argentina, Bolivia (Arce, Chapar , Murillo, Pando), Peru.

Note: According to Robinson in Robinson et al. (2006a), as C. remotiflorum, this species is also recorded from W. Brazil, but this clearly refers to another species (probably C. surinamense).

Clibadium psilogynum S. F. Blake, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21: 329 (1931) = Clibadium peruvianum Poepp. in DC.

*Clibadium remotiflorum O. E. Schulz, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46: 621 (1912) = Clibadium peruvianum Poepp. in DC.

Clibadium rotundifolium DC., Prodr. 5: 505 (1836) = Clibadium armanii (Balb.) Sch.Bip. ex E.O.Schulz

*Clibadium surinamense L., Mant. Pl. Altera 2: 294 (1771). Note: Foster (1958: 206) cited both C. asperum (now considered a synonym of C. surinamense) and C. surinamense, yet Arriagada (2003) did not record the latter as present in Bolivia. Bang 1203, upon which Rusby recorded C. surinamense for Bolivia, is referred to C. peruvianum.

Clibadium vargasianum H. Rob., Wrightia 6: 46 (1979) = Clibadium peruvianum Poepp. in DC.