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Chuquiraga Juss., Gen. Pl. : 178 (1789).

Johannia Willd., Sp. Pl. 3(3): 1705 (1803), homotypic syn.

Joannesia Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 383 (1807), orth. var.

Joannea Spreng., Anleit. ed. 2, 2(2): 535 (1818), orth var.

Type: Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

References

Ezcurra, C. (1985). Revision del genero Chuquiraga (CompositaeMutisieae). Darwiniana 26(14): 219284.

Gaspar, F. C. (1945). Las especies Argentinas del gnero Chuquiraga. Revista Argent. Agron. 12(3): 157173.

Key to species

1.Leaf lamina ovate, elliptic or oblong (less frequently lanceolate), margins flat, with mid-rib prominent beneath; axillary spines present (exceptionally reduced or absent) (sect. Chuquiraga)- 2

Leaf lamina triangular-lanceolate, margins involute, mid-rib not prominent; axillary spines always absent (sect. Acanthophylla)5

2. (1)Capitula large, more than 3 cm tall; corollas more than 17 mm long; anthers 1520 mm long (ser. Chuquiraga)3

Capitula medium or small, less than 3 cm tall; corollas less than 16 mm long; anthers 812 mm long Ch. parviflora

3. (2)Leaves alternate and spiralled, frequently imbricate; invoucre turbinate with (10) 3050 florets; phyllaries 810-seriate Ch. jussieui

Leaves opposite in upper branches; capitula with less than 30 florets; phyllaries 69-seriate4

4. (3)Involucre narrowly cylindrical-campanulate to cylindrical-turbinate; phyllaries acute, outer generally pungent; leaves acute, very frequently coriaceous Ch. spinosa ssp. australis

Involucre campanulate; phyllaries obtuse and mucronate; leaves oblong-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, subcoriaceous Ch. longiflora

5. (1)Inner phyllaries acute; leaves open but not divergent from stem Ch. atacamensis

Inner phyllaries obtuse; leaves spreading and diverging markedly from stems Ch. acanthophylla

*Chuquiraga acanthophylla Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 5 (1855). Type: Hab. Bolivie: plaines de la province de Cinti!, au sud du Rio Pilcomayo, h. 3500 mtres (Wedd.). Holotype: P; isotype: LP.

Chuquiraga punensis Gasper, Revista Argent. Agron. 12(3): 166 (1945). Type:[Argentina] ''Jujuy, Yav, cerca La Quiaca. [A. L. Cabrera, 7780]. Holotype: LP.

Argentina, Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Tarija).

Chuquiraga alpestris Barb. Rodr., Plantas Novas Cult Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 4: 20, tab. 5 (1894) = Dasyphyllum velutinum (Baker) Cabrera

*Chuquiraga armata J. Koster, Blumea 5(3): 662 (1945) = Dasyphyllum armatum (Koster) Cabrera

Chuquiraga atacamensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 141 (1898), nom. nov. pro Chuquiraga glabra Phil.. Type: [Kuntze (1898) cited ''Atacama-Wste: Ascotan. but Ch. atacamensis is not listed by Wetter & Zanoni (1985).]

Chuquiraga glabra Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Bot. 8: 30 (1891), non Ch. glabra (Spreng.) Baker (1882)(= Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera var. brasiliense). Types: Ad Cebollar et Colorados lecta. Pizzaro (1960: 136) cited SGO 62551, 43861 & 43860.

Argentina, Bolivia (Potos ), Chile.

Vernacular name: San Pedro (Gaspar, 1945: 166).

*Chuquiraga brasiliensis (Spreng.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 141 (1898) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera

*Chuquiraga brasiliensis (Spreng.) Kuntze var. divaricata (Griseb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 141 (1898) = Dasyphyllum brasiliensis (Spreng.) Cabrera var. divaricatum (Griseb.) Cabrera

Chuquiraga canodlleana (Gardner) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 358 (1884) = Dasyphyllum candolleanum (Garnder) Cabrera

Chuquiraga chrysantha Gard. var. longiflora Griseb., Abhand. Knigl. Ges. Wis. G ttingen 19([1]): 195 (1874) = Chuquiraga longiflora (Griseb.) Hieron.

Chuquiraga doniana (Gardner) Cabrera var. velutina (Baker) Toledo, Fl. Dist. Ibiti: 130 (1947) = Dasyphyllum velutinum (Baker) Cabrera

*Chuquiraga ferox (Wedd.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 19: 266 (1892) = Dasyphyllum ferox (Wedd.) Cabrera

Chuquiraga glabra (Spreng.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 363 (1884) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera

Chuquiraga glabra Spreng. var. hassleriana (Chodat) Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss., Ser. 2, 3(9): 781 (1903) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera var. varians (Gardner) Cabrera

Chuquiraga glabra Spreng. var. rectispina Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss., Ser. 2, 3(9): 781 (1903) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera var. varians (Gardner) Cabrera

Chuquiraga glabra Spreng. var. varians (Gardner) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 363 (1884) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera var. varians (Gardner) Cabrera

Chuquiraga glabra Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Bot. 8: 30 (1891), comb. illegit. = Chuquiraga atacamensis Kuntze

Chuquiraga hassleriana Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss., Ser. 2, 1(4): 418 (1901) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera var. varians (Gardner) Cabrera

Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 153 (1813) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

*Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl. var. d armata Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl. var. lancifolia (Humb. & Bonpl.) Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl. var b microphylla (Humb. & Bonpl.) DC., Prodr. 7: 9 (1838) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, 2(2): 1205 (1796). Type: not stated but referring back to Jussieus Genera Plantarum : 178 (1789), Caracter ex sicco Jos. Jussi specimine Peruviano Chuquiraga vernacule dicto. Ezcurra (1985: 247) cited the following Perou-herb. d. Jos. De Jussieu sans nom dans lherbier. Chuquiragua foliis rusci minoris, capitulis cinaerae splendentibus leg. Joseph de Jussieu, herb. A. L. de Jussieu no 8320. Holotype: P-JU.

Johannia insignis Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1705 (1804). Type: Habitat in Peru, L. Type: B-W (14990). Note: there are two sheets in B-W, and both indicate that this material was collected by Humboldt.

Chuquiraga peruviana J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1(2): 394 (1805). Type: Habite le Prou, o il a t observ par J. de Jussieu. Holotype: presumably P-JU.

Joannesia insignis (Willd.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 383 (1807).

Chuquiraga microphylla Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 151 (1813). Type: YT'Habitat in altis et fridigis montibus Peruviae. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 153 (1813).

Chuquiraga lancifolia Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 153 (1813). Type: Habitat in monte Antisana. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl. var. b microphylla (Humb. & Bonpl.) DC., Prodr. 7: 9 (1838).

Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl. var. lancifolia (Humb. & Bonpl.) Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855).

*Chuquiraga insignis (Willd.) Humb. & Bonpl. var. d armata Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855). Type: Bolivie ( g et d): lieux sablonneux prs dAcoraimes!, sur le lac de Titicaca, h. 3900 m tres (Wedd.); Chivisivi! (Pentland). Lectotype (selected by Escurra, 1985: 247, but as holotype): Bolivie: Chivisivi, Valle de la Paz alt. 8500 a 1200 [sic!] p. angl.; 1839, leg M. Pentland.'' P.

Chuquiraga pseudoruscifolia Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 50(2/3), Beibl. 111: 93 (1913). Types: Peruvia: Supra Cuyocuyo, in provincia Sandia, in graminosis fruticibus solitariis intermixtis, 36003800 m s.m. (Weberbauer n. 936. Specim. florig. fructiferaque. 3. Maii 1902). Departimento Puno, ad rupes, 4200 m s.m. (Weberbauer n. 500. Specim. florig. 2. Martii 1902). Via ad Ocros, Departimento Ancachs, provincia Cajatambo, in declivibus, 44004500 m s.m. (Weberbauer n. 2805. Florens 6. Aprilis 1903). La Oroya, ad rupes, 3700 m s.m. (Weberbauer sin. num. Florens 22. Novembris 1902). Syntypes: B.

*Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel. var. lancifolia (Humb. & Bonpl.) J. Koster, Blumea 5(3): 662 (1945).0

Bolivia (La Paz), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.

*Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel. var. lancifolia (Humb. & Bonpl.) J. Koster, Blumea 5(3): 662 (1945) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

Chuquiraga lancifolia Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 153 (1813) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

*Chuquiraga longiflora (Griseb.) Hieron., Pl. Diaphoricae : 165 (1882).

*Chuquiraga oppositifolia D. Don var. b macrocephala Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855). Types: Hab. Bolivie (a et b): Cordillres de Tacopaya! et de Tarabuco!, dans la province de la Laguna (dOrbigny); d pt. de Chuquisaca, dans la rgion alpestre (Wedd.) Chile: commun dans la Cordill re dOvalle!, etc. (Gay, Poeppig). Syntypes: P. Lectotype (selected by Ezcurra, 1985: 251- but as holotype): Prov. Tarija, I-1846; In declivibus praeruptis aridis. , leg. Weddell 3994 P.

Chuquiraga chrysantha Gardner var. longiflora Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 195 (1874).[Pl. Lorentz. : 147 (1874)]. Type: Nom. vernac. Azafran. Tucuman, in declivitate superiori montium supra Cienega. (Andes Boliviae et Chile). Ezcurra (1985: 251) cited ARGENTINA: Bis manshoher sparsam vera stelter Strauch hoch ber der Cienega am oestl. Berghande, Sierra de Tucuman, 25-III-1872, leg. Lorentz 141. Holotype: GOET; isotype: GH.

Argentina, Bolivia (Tarija).

Vernacular name: Azafr n (Grisebach, 1874: 195; Gaspar, 1945: 163).

Chuquiraga velutina Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 358 (1884) = Dasyphyllum velutinum (Baker) Cabrera

Chuquiraga microphylla Humb. & Bonpl., Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 151 (1813) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

*?Chuquiraga oppositifolia Gillies & D. Don, Phil. Mag. 11: 392 (1832). Cited in Foster (1958: 206), but not in Ezcurra (1985) as present in Bolivia, only as varieties as synonyms, q.v.

*Chuquiraga oppositifolia D. Don var. b macrocephala Wedd.. Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855) = Chuquiraga longiflora (Griseb.) Hieron.

*Chuquiraga oppositifolia D. Don var. a microcephala Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855)= Chuquiraga parviflora (Griseb.) Hieron.

*Chuquiraga parviflora (Griseb.) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 231 (1913).

*Chuquiraga oppositifolia D. Don [var.] a microcephala Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 3 (1855). Types: see listing under C. longiflora. Lectotype (selected by Ezcurra, 1985: 255, but as holotype): Bolivia: cordilleres de Tarabuco et Tacopaya, Prov. de La Lagune, leg. DOrbigny 1164 P.

Chuquiraga spinosa (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don var. parviflora Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 195 (1874). Types: Catamarca, ubi praecipue fruticeta constituit in reg. Cardones, et in convalle Tembladera pr. Fuerte de Andalgala. (Andes Peruv. Chile). Syntypes: Lorentz 405, 411, GOET. Excurra (1985: 255) merely cited the same locality together with one syntype: 3/I/1872, Lorentz 411, GOET.

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Potos, Santa Cruz, Sucre, Tarija).

Ortu o et al. 373, Sucre, 13.4.2004

Mendoza & Acebo 944, Santa Cruz, 27.3.2004

Wood 22069, Cochabamba, 19.11.2005

Chuquiraga peruviana J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1(2): 394 (1805) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

Chuquiraga pseudoruscifolia Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 50(2/3), Beibl. 111: 93 (1913) = Chuquiraga jussieui J. F. Gmel.

Chuquiraga punensis Gaspar, Revista Argent. Agron. 12(2): 166 (1945) = Chuquiraga acanthophylla Wedd.

Chuquiraga racemosa Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 363 (1884) = Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera

*Chuquiraga rotundifolia Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 4 (1855) = Chuquiraga spinosa Less. ssp. rotundifolia (Wedd.) Ezcurra. Although cited by Foster (1958: 206) as present in Bolivia, this subspecies is only recorded for Chile and Peru.

Chuquiraga spinosa Less., Linnaea 5: 259 (April 1830), non (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don (= Barnadesia dombeyana Less.). Type: Dombey in Peru s. Chili. (v. sp. 1. in hrb. Kth.) Holotype: ?B. Note: Kunths original herbarium was in B, and this may well be where Lessing saw this Dombey collection.

ssp. australis Ezcurra, Darwiniana 26(14): 245 (1985). Type: ARGENTINA, Prov. Jujuy: Dep. Humahuaca, Mina Aguilar, 18-I-53, leg. Sleumer 3484. Holotype: SI.

Argentina, Bolivia (Potos), Chile.

Chuquiraga spinosa Less. var. parviflora Griseb., Abh. K nigl. Ges. Wiss. Gttingen 19([1]): 195 (1874) = Chuquiraga parviflora (Griseb.) Hieron.

Chuquiraga urceolata Mattf., Notzbl. Bot. Garten Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 9(85): 394 (1925) = Dasyphyllum candolleanum (Gardner) Cabrera

*Chuquiraga varians (Gardner) Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 399 (1907) = Dasyphyllum brasiliensis (Spreng.) Cabrera var. varians (Gardner) Cabrera

Chuquiraga velutina Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 358 (1884) = Dasyphyllum velutinum (Baker) Cabrera

Chylodia sarmentosa (Rich.) Rich. ex Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 29: 490 (1823) = Tilesia baccata (L.f.) Pruski