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Chaptalia Vent., Descr. Pl. Jard. Cels : tab. 61 (1802).

Thyrsanthema Necker, Elem. Bot. 1: 6 (1790), nom. rej. Type: not designated. (See discussion by Neson (1995: 154155)).

Leria DC., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 19: 68 (1812). Type: not stated. Lectotype (selected by Burkart, 1944: 561). Type: Tussilago nutans L. = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Loxodon Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 27: 253 (1823). Type: not state. Lectotype (selected by Burkart, 1944: 534). Type: Tussilago exscapa Pers. = Loxodon exscapa (Pers.) Cass. = Chaptalia exscapa (Pers.) Baker

Lieberkuhna Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 27: 286 (1823). Lectotype (selected by Burkart, 1944: 539): Perdicium piloselloides Vahl = Chaptalia piloselloides (Vahl) Baker

Oxydon Less., Linnaea 5: 357 (1830). Type: Oxydon bicolor Less. = Chaptalia runcinata Kunth

Oxyodon DC., Prodr. 7: 43 (1838), orth. var. pro Oxydon Less.

Chaptalia Vent. sect. Archichaptalia Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 525 (1944). Type: Chaptalia rotundifolia D. Don

Chaptalia Vent. sect. Pseudotrichocline Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 524 & 532 (1944). Type: Chaptalia isernia Cuatrec.

Chaptalia Vent. sect. Loxodon (Cass.) Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 524 & 534 (1944).

Chaptalia Vent. sect. Lieberkuhna (Cass.) Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 524 & 539 (1944).

Chaptalia Vent. sect. Leria (DC.) Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 525 & 560 (1944). Lectotype (selected by Burkart, 1944: 561): Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Chaptalia Vent. sect. Microchaptalia Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 525 & 586 (1944), p.p. Type: Tussilago pumila Sw. = Chaptalia pumila (Sw.) Urban

Type: Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.

References

Burkart, A. (1944). Estudio del gnero de compuestas Chaptalia con especial referencia a las especies argentinas. Darwiniana 6(4): 505594.

Hansen, H. V. (1990). Phylogenetic studies in the Gerbera-complex (Compositae, tribe Mutisieae, subtribe Mutisiinae). Nordic J. Bot. 9(5): 469--485.

Nesom, G. L. (1984). Taxonomy and distribution of Chaptalia dentata and C. albicans (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). Brittonia 36(4): 396401.

Nesom, G. L. (1995). Revision of Chaptalia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) from North America and continental Central America. Phytologia 78(3): 153188.

Key to species

1. Leaves long-petiolate, petiole as long as or much longer than lamina Ch. rotundifolia

Leaves short-petiolate or sessile 2

2. (1) Leaves lyrate or lyrate-pinntifid 3

Leaves entire or dentate 4

3. (2) Stipe ebracteolate; capitula 100300-flowered; rostrum much longer than achene body; plants relatively large and robust, to 60 cm tall Ch. nutans

Stipe bracteolate; capitula 2540-flowered; rostrum shorter than achene body; plants relatively small, 1020 cm tall Ch. similis

4. (2) Leaves usually entire, sometimes denticulate; stipe nodding when young, ebracteolate; florets 100200 Ch. integerrima

Leaf margins retrorsely serrate; stipe always erect, bracteolate; florets 20605

5. (4) Secondary veins prominent on underside of leaf; lamina papyraceous; achene body papillose Ch. mandonii

Secondary veins almost invisible; lamina membranaceous; achene body glabrous or papillose at base Ch. runcinata

Chaptalia cordata Hieron. var. ferrugineo-tomentosa Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 512 (1905) = *?Chaptalia rotundifolia D. Don

Chaptalia diversifolia Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 194 (1906) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

*Chaptalia ebracteata (Kuntze) K. Schum., Bot. Jarhb. Syst. 26(1): 376 (1900) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Chaptalia erosa Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 196 (1906) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Chaptalia fibrosa Beauverd, Bull. Soc. Bot. Genve 2, ser. 13: 11 (1921), nom. nud. (based on Herzog 1257) = untreated by Burkart but determined as Chaptalia piloselloides var. graminifolia Malme'' (vide Koster, 1945: 675). The taxon cited Koster was treated as a variety of C. runcinata by Burkart, but considered endemic to Brazil.

Chaptalia graminifolia (Dusn) Cabrera, Fl. Ilust. Catarinense, Compostas Tribo 1. Mutisieae : 69 (1973) = Chaptalia runcinata Kunth

*Chaptalia integrifolia (Cass.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 377 (1884), comb. illeg., non Chaptalia integrifolia (Michx.) Nutt. (= Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.) = Chaptalia integerrima (Vell.) Burkart

Chaptalia integerrima (Vell.) Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 576 (1944).

Tussilago integerrima Vell., Fl. Flum. Icones 8, tab. 140 (1831). Type: not cited; the original of Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 140 (1831) is best treated as the lectotype in the event that no material of Flora Fluminensis is found.

Leria integrifolia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 26: 103 (1823). Types: Uruguay ''Nous avons fait cette description sur deux chantillons secs de lherbier de M. de Jussieu, recueillis par Commerson dans les environs de Montevideo; l''un de ces deux chantillons porte des fleurs, et lautre des fruits m rs: ce dernier, tant plus grand que lautre dans toutes ses parties, nous fait pr sumer que la plante acquiert de laccroissement aprs la fleuraison. Type material: P-JU.

Leria nutans (L.) DC. var. integrifolia (Cass.) Less., Linnaea 5: 354 (1830).

Leria lutescens Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 10).

Leria lutescens Sch.Bip., Linnaea 34(5): 527 (Feb. 1866). Type: ''[Mandon] 10. Leria lutescens Sz. Bip. a sp. aff. L. integrifoliae Cass. sed capitula duplo minora. [Enumerato Cassiniacearum a cl. G. Mandon in Bolivia a. 18571861 lectarum]. Holotype P; isotypes: B, K, LE.

*Chaptalia integrifolia (Cass.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 377 (1884), comb. illeg., non Chaptalia integrifolia (Michx.) Nutt. (= Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.)

Thyrsanthema integrifolia (Cass.,) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 182 (1898).

*Chaptalia microdonta Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 196 (1906). Type: Yungas, Bolivia, 1894, Miguel Bang, n. 2095. (Holotype US; isotypes: B, K, US, Z).

Brazil: Bahia, Gois, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, S o Paulo.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), ?Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay.

Burkart (1944: 580) cited the following: Santa Cruz, prov. Sara, Steinbach 6497 (BA, LIL); Buena Vista, Steinbach 1574 (LIL).

Lengua de vaca; Pelosilla (Burkart, 1944; Katinas, 1996); Lngua-de-vaca (Cabrera & Klein, 1973); Vakak , Yty ar (Cabrera, 1998); Lengua de vaca, Pelosilla, Vakaku, Yerba de San Juan, Yty are (Freire et al., 2006).

*Chaptalia integrifolia (Cass.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 377 (1884), comb. illeg., non Chaptalia integrifolia (Michx.) Nutt. (= Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.) = Chaptalia integerrima (Vell.) Burkart

*Chaptalia majuscula Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 196 (1906) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

*Chaptalia mandonii Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 551 (1944). Types: [Bolivia:] Larecaja, en la vecind. de Sorata, monte Ch[?]heca a 3000 m, Mandon 11; X-1858, sub Leria mandoni Schultz-Bip. (B., GOET., LE) (Typus).'' Syntypes: B, GOET, K, LE, P, S.

Leria mandoni Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea, 34: 527 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 11)

*Chaptalia piloselloides sensu Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 378 (1884), p.p.

Brazil: Minas Gerais, So Paulo.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Brazil, Uruguay.

*Chaptalia microdonta Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 196 (1906) = Chaptalia integerrima (Vell.) Burkart

*Chaptalia nutans (L.) Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 255 (1881) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak., Linnaea 41: 582 (1877).

Tussilago nutans L., Syst. Nat. ed 10, 2: 1214 (1759). Type: Habitat in America''. . Lectotype (selected by Simpson in Woodson & Schery, 1975: 1278): Browne, Herb. Linn. No. 995.5 (LINN). Note: Additional commentary has been provided by Nesom (1995: 162).

Tussilago lyrata Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 456 (1807). Type: not cited Hab. in Amer. meridionali.. The following specimens were cited by Cassini (1823: 103), les uns dans lile de Saint-Domingue par M. Poiteau, les autres dans lile de Porto-Rico par M. Riedl. when the same species was transferred to Leria.

Leria nutans (L.) Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 4 (1818).

Leria lyrata (Pers.) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 26: 102 (1823).

Tussilago vaccina Vell., Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 143 (1831). Type: not cited. [Fl. Flum. Ic. 8: tab. 143].

Gerbera nutans (L.) Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 313 (1856).

*Chaptalia nutans (L.) Hemsley, Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 255 (1881), comb. illegit. superfl.

Thyrsanthema nutans (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 369 (1891).

Thyrsanthema ebracteata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 182 (1898). Type: ''Bolivia: 2600 m Copachuncho in Sierra de Santa Cruz. [Bolivia. Copachuncho in Sierra de Santa Cruz, 2600 m, May 1892, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 338]. Holotype: NY; isotype: B.

*Chaptalia ebracteata (Kuntze) Schumann, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 376 (1898).

Chaptalia texana Greene, Leafl. Bot. observ. Crit. 1: 191 (1906). Type: Rocky sparsley wooded ground in western Texas, the type Neallys 297 as in U.S. Herb., Lindheimers n. 446 and the n. 674 of the Mexican Boundary Survey appear to be the same; perhaps also Reverchons n. 1546, but that is doubtful. It seems different. Holotype: US; isotype: SI.

Chaptalia diversifolia Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 194 (1906). Type: Near Mazarenango, Guatemala, 20 Febr., 1905 W.R. Maxon & R. Hay, n. 3504. Holotype US.

Chaptalia subcordata Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 195 (1906). Type: St. Croix. Rickseckers n. 447. Holotype US.

Chaptalia erosa Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 196 (1906). Type: Costa Rica, June, 1892, Conduz [sic!], n. 447 [sic!]. Holotype: US. (Nesom (1995) gave this as COSTA RICA. San Jos, bords des chemins et fosses, 115 m, Jun 1892. A. Tonduz 4147.).

*Chaptalia majuscula Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 196 (1906). Types: ''Bolivian species. Rusbys n. 1677 from Mapiri and Bangs 237 from Yungas .... Syntypes: US; isosyntype (Bang 237), K.

Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak. var. texana (Greene) Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 569 (1944).

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Lngua-de-vaca, Costa-branca (Cabrera & Klein, 1973); Tapyi rapeo (Cabrera, 1998); Arracachuela, Burro-ca , Cerraja, Costa branca, Lechuguilla, Lengua de vaca, Peludilla, Pelusa, Raz de lombriz, Tapyi rapeo (Freire et al., 2006); Cerraja; Pelusa (Katinas, 1996).

Note: The combination Leria nutans (L.) DC., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 19: 68 (1812)'' is cited in Index Kewensis and on the IPNI database but the combination was never actually made by de Candolle, simply a comment that several species of Tussilago belonged in Leria!

*Chaptalia piloselloides (Vahl) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 378 (1884), p.p. = Chaptalia mandonii (Sch.Bip.) Burkart

Chaptalia piloselloides (Vahl) Baker var. graminifolia Dusn ex Malme, (1933) = Chaptalia runcinata Kunth

*Chaptalia piloselloides (Vahl) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 378 (1884), p.p. = Chaptalia runcinata Kunth

*Chaptalia rotundifolia D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16(2): 242 (1830). Type: In stagnatis altis frigidis Peruviae ad Pillao. Ruiz et Pavon. K.'' Holotype: originally in Aylmer Bourke Lamberts herbarium now presumably in BM see Miller (1970: 538540). Note: the original Ruiz & Pavn collection is in MA, to be counted as an isotype [sheet marked B8 of microfiche sheet 286 of the Ruiz & Pav n herbarium. This sheet is labelled Perdicium lanatum/sp. n./ Pillao 1787 and on which are mounted seven plants.]

Chaptalia cordata Hieron. var. ferrugineo-tomentosa Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(5): 512 (1905). Type: Peruvia: crescit prope Cutervo (J.[elski] n. 726, m. Aprili 1879). Holotype: B.

Bolivia (?), Peru.

Note: The following synonymy is sometimes attributable to Chaptalia rotundifolia, but may be more appropriate under Trichocline T. ovalis is not present in Bolivia.

Chaptalia ovalis D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16(2): 241 (1830). Type: In Peruvi ad Huassahuassi et Churapallanam. Ruiz et Pavon. K. Holotype: originally in Aylmer Bourke LambertY's herbarium now presumably in BM see Miller (1970: 538540). Note: No material is immediately evident in the microfiche of Ruiz & Pavn herbarium! It is possible that since Pav n sold further material that the location of any duplicates of the type material needs further investigation.

Perdicium ovale Ruiz & Pav. ex D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 16(2): 241 (1830), nom. nud. pro syn.

Trichocline ovalis (D. Don) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21(4): 370 (1896).

Chaptalia runcinata Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 5 (1818). Type: [Colombia:] Crescit locis temperatis, scopulosis Andium Novo-Granatensium in ripa fluvii Smita, alt. 590 hex. K Floret Octobri.. [Humboldt & Bonpland 2031]. Holotype: P-Bonpl.; isotype: B-W.

Loxodon longipes Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 27: 255 (1823), nom. illegit. pro Chaptalia runcinata Kunth

Oxydon bicolor Less, Linnaea 5: 357 (1830), nom. illegit. pro Chaptialia runcinata Kunth

*Chaptalia piloselloides (Vahl) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 378 (1884), p.p.

Chaptalia piloselloides (Vahl) Baker var. graminifolia Dusn ex Malme, Kongl. Svensk. Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 12(2): 115 (1933). Types: [Brazil:] [Paran ] Inter Capo Grande et Villa Velha 12/304 ([Dus n] n. 4062), ..., Curityba 2/909 ([Dusn] n. 8796), ..., Jaguariahyba 5/710 ([Dus n] 10037), 21/514 ([Dusn] n. 406a). Hab. in ripis rivulorum et campis plus minusve uliginosis. Note: In his discussion of this taxon Burkart (1944: 557) noted that a specimen in B was a duplicate of the type, this effectively indicating that Burkart lectotypified the name based on Dus n 4062; the lectotype is assumed to be in S. Burkart aslo cited a duplicated of Dusn 10037 in B, and duplicates of Dus n 406a in LE and SI.

Chaptalia runcinata Kunth var. graminifolia (Dusn ex Malme) Burkart, Darwiniana 6(4): 556 (1944).

Chaptalia graminifolia (Dus n) Cabrera, Fl. Ilust. Catarinense, Compostas Tribo Mutisieae : 69 (1973).

Argentina, Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Note: this species is not apparently recorded for Peru.

Lnguia-de-vaca, L ngua-de-vaca-folha-de-grama (Cabrera & Klein, 1973); Cerraja (Cabrera, 1998).

Chaptalia similis R. E. Fr., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 4, 1: 95 (1905). Syntypes: [Argentina:] Prov. Jujuy: S:a Catalina in fissuris rupium, ca. 3650 m. s. m. (1618 Jan. 1901; Kurtz 11460); Moreno in fissuris rupium, 3500 m. s. m. (10 Dec. 1901; Fr[ies] 823 a); Abra de Palomar in rupibus siccis, ca. 3800 m. s. m. (16 Nov. 1901; Fr[ies] 823, leg. G. v. Hofsten). Syntypes: S; isosyntype: Kurtz 11460, BAF

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Note: Bukart (1944: 573) cited two collections from Bolivia, noting that Mandon 13 (K) was a cotype (= syntype), which it most certainly couldnt be since it was never cited in the protologue!

Cited collections: Puna Patanca, Fiebrig 3197 (SI, LE, LIL, B); La Paz, Potopoto, a 3700 m, Mandon 13; I-1861 (K).

Chaptalia subcordata Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 195 (1906) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Chaptalia texana Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 191 (1906) = Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.

Chatiakella platyglossa Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 46: 403 (1827), based on Chylodia sarmentosa (Rich.) Rich. ex Cass. = Tilesia baccata (L.f.) Pruski

Chatiakella stenoglossa Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 46: 403 (1827), based on Chylodia sarmentosa (Rich.) Rich. ex Cass. = Tilesia baccata (L.f.) Pruski